WATER USE IN AGRICULTURE
Agriculture accounts for around 70% of water used in the world today and also contributes to water pollution from excess nutrients, pesticides and other pollutants
- Agriculture accounts for three-quarters (75%) of the total water use in Australia and consecutive years of good rainfall and successful management has increased water availability for this sector.
- Almost 80% of sub-saharan agriculture depends on 'green water', however most of the rain evaporates before it can be managed to generate 'green water', so little of it can be used due to poor management.
WATER AND RECREATION USE
Recreation is an activity that a person does for enjoyment, usually to refresh the body and mind. Water is one of the biggest uses for recreation, for activities such as fishing, canoeing and swimming.
- Water recreation can have serious effects on the quality of drinking water, which is why there are many rules surrounding where recreation is permitted.
- In Australia, the government prioritises the water supply over any recreational use where as in Kenya, there are not currently any regulations surrounding water use.
- For example, Warragamba Dam used to be a primary picnic and fishing area, however due to the risk of water contamination any walking, camping, fishing or non-powered boating can result in a fine of up to $44,000.
- In contrast to this, the Nairobi Dam is so contaminated that it resulted in a cholera outbreak.
- It is highly likely that human use of the water played a major role in the severity of the contamination.
SO HOW IS THE WATER MANAGED?
Warragamba Dam, Sydney
- Supplies water to more that 3.7 million people living in Sydney
- Stores and supplies 80% of Sydneys water
- 142m high
- Surface area of 75km squared
- All water that comes from Warragamba is filtered, tested and monitored
- Bacteria free
- Fluoride is added to strengthen teeth and prevent decay
- The cleanliness of Warragamba has never been better, and surrounding residents are posed to no health risk
Nairobi Dam, Nairobi
- Provides water to 13% of Nairobi residents only
- Surface area of 350,000km squared
- The water has a very high degree of contamination
- This contaminated water is not treated prior to consumption
- This has lead to the growth of invasive plant species and recent cholera outbreaks
- The environmental hazard and health threat has become so severe that excavation of the dam is currently being carried out
WHO IS HELPING?
Individuals, groups and the government all play a major role in helping developing countries such as Kenya manage their water, and developed countries such as Australia maintain its high water quality.
- Many individuals are currently petitioning to the Nairobi Dam International Government of Kenya to save it from extinction
- The dam poses a severe health risk to residents and excavation is now being carried out by a foreign investor
- 114 individuals signed the petition to stop the drainage
United Nations FAO/IAEA
- Currently working on improving agricultural water management in developing countries.
- Kenya is one of the 18 African countries participating in a new regional irrigation project to introduce and pilot-test appropriate small scale irrigation technologies (SSITs) with the aim of developing irrigation systems for small-scale farmers for increasing yield and quality of high value crops, and to improve their income and livelihood.
- The World Bank's Board of Executive Directors today approved US$155 million IDA credit to support the Government of Kenya’s efforts to support new water infrastructure, including in water storage and irrigation, and build capacity in water institutions.
- The IDA credit will finance the first operation under the Government’s Kenya Water Security and Climate Resilience Program, a long-term, transformational program aimed at achieving water security and resilience to climate variability and change throughout the country.
- The operation will also support the progressive development of an investment pipeline in the water sector, as well as the enabling institutional and information base to ensure that water investments are sustainably planned, developed and maintained for long-term prosperity.
Water Group Australia
- A large corporate water savings company who secure water and save money through cost effective and sustainable solutions
- They provide a baseline, identify cost-effective savings, streamline implementation and find solutions that work
- One example of their work: their water-saving intervention saved a major processor over $45,000 in water bills per year
The Water Project, Kenya
- An organisation "picking up the slack of Kenya's government" that provides healthcare and water solutions
- A government-based organisation that aims to ensure water quality meets the Australian Drinking Water guidelines
- They manage the water quality by protecting the water from the moment it falls as rain right through to piping raw water to a customer's filtration plant and monitoring it throughout the process
- WaterNSW uses the water monitoring results to choose the best available water to send to the water filtration plants.
- WaterNSW manages and protects the drinking water catchments, and supplies high quality raw water
- They work together with local councils, landholders, government agencies and industry to ensure daily activities - particularly building, industry and farming - do not harm the environment that our drinking water comes from
- The Kenyan Government has launched a project that involves the construction of a new dam along River Tana
- The proposed High Grand Falls Dam will be the single largest undertaking by the government and will irrigate more than 200,000 acres of land
- To reduce water scarcity in Kenya, the government plans to construct 28 dams across the country
- The government is stepping up to meet citizens' demands for clean water