Diabetes Type 2

Background or Biology of the disease

Insulin Bottle
  1. If you have type 2 diabetes your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it isn't able to keep up and can't make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose at normal levels.
  2. Type 2 diabetes can be easy to ignore, especially in the early stages when you're feeling fine. But diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Controlling your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications.
  3. Genetics Play a Role in Type 2 Diabetes
  4. symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision. In some cases, there may be no symptoms.

Dietary Guidelines

A toddler eating candy
  1. To follow a healthy diet, you must first understand how different foods affect your blood sugar. Carbohydrates, which are found in grains, bread, pasta, milk, sweets, fruit, and starchy vegetables, are broken down into glucose in the blood faster than other types of food, which raises blood sugar levels.
  2. Food from all the food groups, Fewer calories, About the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal and snack, Healthy fats, these are meal plans you should follow to manage your blood sugar.
  3. Carbohydrates in food give your body energy. You need to eat carbohydrates to maintain your energy. But carbohydrates also raise your blood sugar higher and faster than other kinds of food.
  4. Maintain a healthy body weight. Many people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
  5. The parts of plant foods that the body can't digest. Helps to control blood sugar, soften stools, and maintain bowel health.
  6. A good guideline for diabetics is to limit total carbohydrate consumption to 45-60 grams per meal (no more than 180 grams per day). A good guideline for a diabetic plate of food would be ¼ protein, ¼ starch, ½ non starchy vegetables. Daily the ratio of percentage of grams in the diet for a diabetic should be: 55:20:25 (carbs:fats:protein). Nutrient dense carbohydrates are recommended: ex. Wheat instead of white bread, whole fruit not juice, etc. because fiber does not raise blood sugar.

Monitoring Blood Sugar

Monitor for Blood Sugar
  1. Some people monitor before lunch, dinner, and bedtime; some monitor after each meal; and some monitor both before and after all meals. However, when monitoring after meals, some people do it two hours after the first bite of the meal, while others prefer to check one hour after the start of a meal.
  2. For people whose Type 2 diabetes in good control, Dr. Ganda recommends monitoring twice a day.
  3. A recent study made headlines by finding little value in monitoring for people with Type 2 diabetes who are not taking insulin.
  4. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test.

What is the A1C test?

A1C Test
  1. The A1C test can help determine if you have diabetes or prediabetes.
  2. The test’s results give an idea of your average blood glucose levels for the preceding two to three months.
  3. The A1C test, also called the glycosylated hemoglobin test, is a blood test doctors use to determine your average blood sugar levels over the past three months. Your doctor may order this test if they suspect that you have or are developing type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, they may order this test to determine if current treatment is keeping your blood sugar under control.
  4. If your A1C is above 5.7 percent, it may mean that you have prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition that can occur before a person is formally diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. It can usually be reversed through improved diet and exercise.
  5. Higher A1C levels have been linked to increased risk of: stroke and heart attack, kidney disease, nerve damage, eye damage that may result in blindness

Exercise Information

women Running
  1. People with type 2 diabetes have too much glucose in their blood, either because their body doesn't produce enough insulin to process it, or because their body doesn't use insulin properly (insulin resistant). In either case, exercise can reduce the glucose in your blood.
  2. Getting at least 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise, like walking, biking, and swimming, will help you lose weight and keep it off, and it can help keep your heart healthy.
  3. Spread your exercise out over several days each week (for example, five sessions of 30 minutes each).
  4. Tai chi, a series of movements performed in a slow and relaxed manner over 30 minutes, has been practiced for centuries.

Personal Story

My Grandma has diabetes and she always tells me to eat right. Because she doesn't want me to have diabetes as well. When I watch her take her insulin shot I ask her if it hurts and she tells me sometimes, she has to take two types of insulin bottles and inject herself with it. She does one bottle on her right side and the other on her left side of the stomach. Then she has to check her sugar. She showed me how to to put the insulin in the needle. First she gets the insulin and rubs her two hands against it, Then she does whatever amount of insulin she needs and puts it in the needle, Last she injects herself with it. Sometimes I don't like to watch her inject herself because I hate needles. I tell her all the time I don't know how you do it, because I couldn't.


  • www.webmd.com/diabetes/type-2-diabetes-guide/type-2-diabetes
  • www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-2/
  • www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/type-2-diabetes/type-2-diabetes-causes


Created with images by geralt - "insulin insulin syringe syringe" • aldenchadwick - "Insulin" • raulurzua - "Diabetes" • stevepb - "diabetes blood sugar diabetic" • jaytaix - "diabetic nurse diabetes" • skeeze - "runner race competition"

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