Believe in one god There are five pillars of practice in Islam. 1.) Declaration of faith in One God and that Muhammad is a prophet of God. 2.) Formal prayer five times a day. 3.) Poor-due "tax" - 2.5% of one's excess wealth given to the needy once a year. 4.) Fasting during the daylight hours in the month of Ramadan. 5.) Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once, if physically and financially able.