Heliocentric Theory- the theory where the sun is in the center of the universe or center of the solar system
Nicholas Copernicus, from Poland, lived from 1473-1543. He travelled to Italian city states to read about ancient Greek's theories about the new Heliocentric universe. In 1543, he publishes On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. After his death, many continued to research his thoughts and followed after his works.
Galileo Galilei lived from 1564-1642. He used the telescope and noticed mountains and valley's on the moon and he thought they developed similarly to Earth's geography. He theorized that if Jupiter had orbiting moons, then the everything revolved around the Earth.
He named Jupiter's moons after the Medici family and believed the universe had a natural order to it. He published The Starry Messenger in 1610 and Letters on Sunspots in 1613. He raised attention of the Catholic Church and the eucharist and transubstantiation. Galilei was put under house arrest in 1632. This is when the scientific movement moved to protestant movement.
Isaac Newton, from England, lived from 1642-1727. He published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and his thesis included every object in the universe affected every object through gravity. The attraction of gravity explained why the planets moved in an orderly fashion rather than a chaotic way. He always observed before explaining and was loyal to this.
Francis Bacon, from England, lived form 1561-1626. He is called the father of Empiricism. He believed the use of experiment and observation derive from sensory evidence to construct scientific theory of knowledge.
Bacon believed scientists should collect facts and that science is open to all ideas. He called for innovation and change and moved to abandon ancient thought. He created climate for scientific development.
Descartes from France lived from 1596-1650. He published the book The Discourse on Method which concentrated on philosophy and the mind. He accepted God's existence so he was not a threat in Catholic France, but his ideas promoted individualism.
The scientific revolution propelled economic and political growth in Protestant areas of Europe.