Type 1 Diabetes Brynn Brusseau


  • Type 1 diabetes is caused when the pancreas can no longer produce insulin.
  • Insulin is the hormone that opens cell "doors" and when little to no insulin is produced, cell doors can't open.
  • When cell doors can't open, glucose can't get into the cell so it stays in the bloodstream hours after you eat a sugary meal.
  • Glucose is needed for cells because it provides energy to carry out all cellular activities and if glucose can't get into cells, cells shut down.


  • Try to control amount of carbs consumed in a day.
  • It is recommended that a diabetic eats less than 60 carbs a meal and no more than 180 carbs a meal.
  • Eating lots of fiber, vitamin A and vitamin C are important for diabetics.
  • Avoid simple sugars such as soda, candy and ice cream.
  • Eat more complex carbs such as pasta and whole grains.
  • Eat more healthy fats like raw almonds and seafood.
  • Avoid foods in high in unhealthy fats such as fried foods.
  • Avoid foods that are "low-fat" as they replace fat with sugars.
  • Per meal diabetics should have a ratio of 2:1:1 as carbs:proteins:lipids.

Monitoring your Blood Sugar Daily

  • Blood sugar is monitored daily with blood glucose tests.
  • If you have type one diabetes it is recommended you check your blood glucose levels 4-8 times per day.
  • If you are below age 59 your blood sugar should be between 80-120 mg/dL and if you are over 60 it should be between 100-140 mg/dL.
  • You can test your blood glucose levels with a glucose meter.
  • Make sure you test your blood glucose levels after meals especially.
  • Your recommended blood glucose level before meals is 70-99 mg/dL and 2 hours after meals it should be less than 140 mg/dL.

Monitoring your blood sugar long term

  • Blood sugar is monitored long term by level known as "A1C".
  • A1C is a test that measures blood glucose levels over 3 months.
  • The A1C test is based on how much glucose is attached to hemoglobin.
  • The A1C is reflected as a percentage and the higher the percentage is the higher the persons blood glucose levels are.
  • Non-Diabetics typically have an A1C of less than 5.7% and diabetics usually have an A1C of higher than 6.5%.

Lifestyle & EXercise

  • For type 1 diabetics it is very important to balance activity level with insulin and glucose intake.
  • If you exercise then you use more glucose so you need less insulin.
  • If you exercise more than you are able eat a few more sugars.
  • Blood glucose can rapidly drop during exercise so it is best to be prepared with foods that can raise blood sugar quickly.
  • These foods can be glucose tablets or candy.


"The tennis phenom's record speaks for his natural ability, but what makes his story more phenomenal is the fact that Cox has had type 1 diabetes since he was 4 years old. "I try and forget about it a little bit out there," he says. "I don't want to make excuses." Off court, Cox is fully aware of his diabetes, monitoring how his demanding daily schedule—five to six hours of practice plus an hour or two lifting weights or running, punctuated by two breaks and lunch—affects his blood glucose levels. "During matches, the adrenaline kicks in and that makes the glucose go higher," he says. "When I get high, it can affect some things on court." To make sure he's in control, Cox tests his glucose before every match. "You can't let [diabetes] hold you back," he says. "You can still achieve whatever you want.'"


Exercise and Type 1 Diabetes (1995). In American Diabetes Association. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/fitness/exercise-and-type-1-diabetes.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/

What is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? (2016). In Diabetes Self Management. Retrieved December 6, 2016, from http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/what-is-a-normal-blood-sugar-level/

Diabetes Success Stories (2009, December). In Diabetes Forcast. Retrieved December 6, 2016, from http://www.diabetesforecast.org/2009/dec/diabetes-success-stories.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/

Mayo Clinic. (2014, June 10). Living with Diabetes Blog. In Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 6, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/expert-blog/a1c-blood-glucose-meter/bgp-20095395

Harvard Medical School. (2016). Goals for Blood Glucose Control. In Joslin Diabetes Center. Retrieved December 6, 2016, from http://www.joslin.org/info/Goals-for-Blood-Glucose-Control.html


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