The Industrial Revolution began with the "Enclosure Movement" which gave people the ability to buy their own land. Those who could not afford their own land flocked to the city in search of jobs.
Population per square mile before and after the Industrial Revolution. Green represents over 512 individuals per square mile.
Supply of Capital- Britain was able to invest in new industrial machines to help produce more goods, and they invested in the factories to house the machines.
Man carrying money= Britain and the Industrial Revolution
Mineral Resources- Britain had a surplus of raw resources such as coal and iron ore. Britain is a relatively small country (geographically) and because of this, transportation of goods was less problematic. Both private and public investments were made in new roads.
Cotton Industry- Britain had already surged ahead by using traditional method of cheap cotton production. The Industrial Revolution led to a major leap in innovation, and from that leap the flying shuttle and the spinning jenny. The flying shuttle doubled the production of cotton because it was much faster than the weaving loom. The spinning jenny led to greater quantities of yarn being produced. New innovations like Arkwright's water frame, and Cartwright's power loom also paved the way for faster production.
Steam Engine- This allowed the production of cotton and the factory system to spread. It could transport water three times faster than other methods, but most importantly it was able to help the Industrial Revolution grow. Because it could get things faster than before this allowed opportunities for expansion of companies and produced larger quantities.
Iron Industry- Before the Industrial Revolution there was methods of retrieving iron ore but not smelting it into iron. The Industrial Revolution led to the smelting of the ore and the casting of iron. Eventually methods evolved into the Cort method, or puddling. This allowed burned impurities of pig iron and allowed the iron to be stronger.
Transportation- The importance of transporting goods was quickly recognized in the Industrial Revolution. There was a huge push for new rivers and bridges, as well as canals. Eventually the railroad was used as the most efficient form of transportation.
The Spread of Industrialization
Many limitations occurred during the spread of industrialization. Many European countries were mainly agrarian, like France and Germany. However, countries could "borrow" Britain's new technology to advance their own industrialization.
Industrial Revolution in the United States
The United States was a predominantly agrarian society, until the huge population boom in the pre-Civil War 1800's. Just as Europe did, they "borrowed" British technology. American inventors soon surpassed British inventors; Harpers Ferry arsenal is an example of the so-called American system. They had muskets that were built with the same parts, so they were easier to assemble. The American system also reduced costs and saved labor.
The population increased dramatically during the Industrial Revolution. The system of recording the entire population (census) was a direct result. There was also an increase in urbanization. Many people moved from rural to urban areas in search of jobs in factories.
For the upper and wealthy middle class, living conditions were not terrible during the Industrial Revolution, they were able to separate themselves from the slums in the street. Urbanization caused most cities to become overpopulated with miserable living conditions. There were sewers in the streets and multiple families shared living spaces.
Working conditions were arguably worse than the living conditions. The work was extremely dangerous, risks ranged anywhere from suffocating in a mine, falling down a mine shaft, to losing limbs to factory machines. Most of the jobs offered long hours and extremely low pay, they also were able to hire children to do jobs adults were too big to do (like pushing carts up a mine shaft) for less than what adults made, or they just wanted cheap labor. There were also those called Luddites, who believed that machines were trying to take over the world and that they had to be destroyed. The Luddites would raid factories and "murder" the machines inside.