Design and illustrations Aïcha El Beloui / Text Charlotte De Somviele Moussem-team Mohamed Ikoubaân, Cees Vossen, Kelly De Cock, Patrick De Coster, Nabila Belkacem / Board of directors Lore Baeten, Mostafa Einauan, Keltoum Belorf, Said El Madjoub, Hafida Raoui, Nadia Fadil, Kathleen Weyts

moussem.be – info@moussem.be

With the support of de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, de VGC & het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale

In 2001 a number of friends and culture lovers of Moroccan and Belgian origin came together around a simple idea: the organization of a festival dedicated to Moroccan culture. Although the Moroccan community had been present in Belgium for 30 years already at the time, its presence was mainly perceptible in all sorts of statistics and in a polarized political discourse. It was conspicuous by its absence in the cultural landscape. And so it happened. The first Moussem Festival took place in May 2001. The response was overwhelming. It may be a bit of an exaggeration, but a festivalgoer put it this way in the daily newspaper De Standaard: ‘Promoting Moroccan culture is a sensitive issue in Antwerp, but more has happened here in one weekend than city and country together have ever done.’

The team of volunteers who were behind this story without pretension did not stop there. That first edition was followed by a second, a third, and all the way through to an eighth edition ... But no one would ever have dared to imagine that Moussem would grow into an organization that for 20 years has been bringing together tens of thousands of people from different generations and cultural backgrounds around exceptional art. With the support of Moussem, the creations of a great number of exciting artists from Belgium and elsewhere have been showcased not only in Flanders and Brussels, but also in Paris, Lisbon, Madrid, Stockholm, Belgrade, London, Tokyo, Seoul, New York, Abu Dhabi, Casablanca and Tunis, among others.

The Moussem story has endured for so long because so many people believe in it. In the first place, the numerous volunteers who ushered this festival into the world; then the many artists who put their trust in us; and last but not least, the members of our public, whose curiosity has led them to return again and again to our productions and events. We cherish the memory of the many unforgettable and cordial moments spent coming together and exchanging around amazing works.

We are also grateful to the many partners from the Flemish and international cultural field that helped us to make our dreams come true; to the many members of the commissions and juries that critically followed and assessed our projects and plans; and to the various authorities that supported us.

In the early years, Moussem mainly focused on the aspirations of the Moroccan community, but over the years it has developed into a broad and inclusive artistic project. In the space of these two decades, our society has also gone through great changes. Diversity is gradually becoming the norm, but the great challenges and ideals of a harmonious and creative society founded on freedom, equality and pluralism are still relevant today. Our belief in the power of art to help shape the community of the future remains unshakeable.

This publication will show you how Moussem reinvented itself time and time again and how it grew from a small local initiative to a Nomadic Arts Centre with international appeal.

Enjoy! – The Moussem team

Self-organization as a shortcut to emancipation

In 1966 the United Nations adopted a covenant on cultural rights. Everyone, it states, has the right to cultural participation, the freedom of artistic expression, the protection of one’s cultural heritage, and a society that actively contributes to cultural diversity(1). This, in a nutshell, has been the life mission of Mohamed Ikoubaân and Moussem.

The origin and growth of Moussem cannot be separated from the history of Belgian migration and the many developments that (cultural) policy, the debate on racism, and the arts sector have gone through over the past 20 years. Ikoubaân moved from Morocco to Belgium in 1989, at a time when cultural diversity first surfaced on the political agenda after a decades-long policy of denial – even though the first guest workers arrived in Belgium from Eastern Europe as early as 1920, followed by Italian, Spanish and Greek workers around the time of the Second World War. In the golden 1960s, the government even organized special campaigns to attract North African and Turkish immigrants to the mining, textile and railway sectors. Family reunification was actively promoted to ensure the influx of new workers.

In the 1980s, there was a growing awareness that these new Flemish residents would not simply allow themselves to be uprooted again and that they also had rights and needs in the area of political representation and religious-cultural autonomy. After integration policy was devolved to Flanders by the state reform of 1980, the High Council for Migrants was established. Under the title ‘Objective 1982’, a number of migrant organizations advocated local voting rights in municipal elections(2). In response to the breakthrough in Antwerp of the extreme-right party Vlaams Blok in 1988, a Royal Commission for Migrant Policy was set up, the forerunner of the Interfederal Centre for Equal Opportunities Unia. Commission chair Paula D’Hondt (CVP) issued the first policy note on Migrant Policy (1989) in order to address the ‘integration problem’(3). By then, however, xenophobia was already deeply rooted in Flemish soil. Two years later, on Black Sunday, the Vlaams Blok also won the federal elections with the slogan ‘Eigen Volk Eerst’ (Our own people first).

After the success of the Vlaams Blok, a great many citizens with a migrant background felt ‘singled out and politically abused’(4) and wanted to stand up for equal rights through their associations. Ikoubaân too was outraged by the political criminalization strategy adopted towards citizens with other roots. At the request of the Flemish Integration Centre for Migrants, in his capacity as a lawyer he gave many lectures at Moroccan women’s organizations across the country and became aware of the emancipating power of bottom-up organizations, against the mindset of the then dominant ‘integrate or leave’ credo. When Ikoubaân subsequently started working for the Centre for Foreign Workers, supporting these citizen initiatives and self-organizations became a priority. Inspired by Flemish civil society, Ikoubaân fought for autonomous organizations and associations that tear themselves loose from the mosques, from the paternalism of the white welfare sector, and from the influence of the Moroccan government, which sought to tighten its grip on its immigrant subjects through the circles of friends Les Amicales(5).

In 1993 the Federation of Moroccan Associations (FMV) saw the light of day with, among others, the first Antwerp-Moroccan student association, Talaba. The starting point was simple: minorities have the right to experience their ethnic-cultural identity freely and to take a critical view of both their country of origin and their new homeland. The political reactions were split: some saw historical parallels with the fight for equal rights within the Flemish and feminist movement, while others accused the Moroccan and other communities of isolating themselves. Even today, the basic right to one’s own identity, culture and language is equated by some politicians with segregation. In 2019 the N-VA, Open VLD and CD&V put forward another bill to strip subsidies from organizations that ‘fell back on their ethnic-cultural origins’(6).

Within the Federation, Ikoubaân set up a separate work group for culture in 1996. During four years, the department organized all kinds of cultural activities with local artists from the Moroccan diaspora until the call for a structural operation grew louder. Together with the initiators of the Immigrant Festival, which ran between 1976 and 1995 in the Zuiderpershuis, Ikoubaân founded a new, non-profit organization: Moussem.

A majority of minorities

Moussem started in 2000 as a broad participatory local cultural project with goals that were as clear as they were ambitious. It wanted to open up Moroccan culture – at the time reduced to merely superficial manifestations – in all its richness to both ‘new’ and ‘old’ Flemish citizens. The stereotypical mint tea and couscous had to make way for a story founded on content, for an accessible programme of poetry, film, music, visual art and literature, created by artists with ties to North Africa or the Middle East. In addition, Moussem aimed to promote the participation in society of the Moroccan community through culture. Because of their generally weak socio-economic position as a result of labour migration, they rarely took part in cultural events. It would therefore be necessary to make up lost ground. Ikoubaân also had these objectives included in the first Cultural policy note for diversity of the city of Antwerp (2001), which he co-wrote.

Just as the brand-new Flemish Culture Minister Bert Anciaux developed a policy in early 2000 in which interculturalism took centre stage(7), the late Antwerp councillor Eric Antonis also believed in culture as a way to defuse metropolitan problems. Antwerp was the only Flemish city to reserve part of the resources of the Social Impulse Fund, allocated via the Decree for Community Development, for cultural projects. The Moussem Festival, at the time mainly dedicated to music, received a two-year subsidy and became the first achievement of the new Moussem non-profit organization.

The kick-off edition in the Zuiderpershuis in 2001 was a great success, a surprising success even, with more than 2,500 spectators, of which 80 per cent of Moroccan origin. In 2002 Moussem also took over the organization of the Nights of the Ramadan from the Federation. With a programme comprising music, stand-up comedy, debates and parties, the organizers wanted to emphasize the social, cultural and political significance of the Islamic fasting period. This secular approach is also reflected in the name ‘moussem’, Arabic for cultural festival. Of course, not everyone agreed with this mission. A concert in the Roma was disrupted by a number of Muslim fundamentalists(8). After the Nights of the Ramadan died out, Moussem organized an annual spring and autumn festival at various locations in the city between 2004 and 2008.

Moussem originated in the midst of the Moroccan community in Antwerp, but from the start opened its doors to citizens from other migration flows. Their own communities are often too small to organize anything. That solidarity is more urgent than ever since political discourse about Muslims has grown harsher and more polarizing in the wake of 9/11. From a cultural perspective, Moussem stirs up the social debate through discussions and lectures on the history of Islam, responding to the need of second-generation youngsters for Dutch-language and critical information about their faith. Moussem has continued this line to this day with the lecture series ‘Islam and critical thinking’ in cooperation with VUB. Moussem wants not only to break through every political tendency towards monoculturalism by means of art, but also to inject Belgian society with other frames of thought in the field of philosophy, science and meaning.

Two years after it was founded, Moussem moved from a small office at the Federation in Borgerhout to the cultural centre Berchem (ccBe), where it remained in residence until 2014. This is where Ikoubaân met programmer Cees Vossen, who joined the organization from 2013. Thanks to ccBe, Moussem was able to expand its activities in Antwerp and far beyond. The focus on sociocultural participation remained(9), but attention for the arts increased and even expanded to theatre.

In the first few years, the offerings of ccBe and Moussem were still quite separate. The theatre of De Koe and De Roovers mainly served white audiences, while a show by cabaret artist Najib Amhali or an Arabic Chekhov adaptation by Théatre El Badaoui mainly attracted Moroccan audiences, sometimes from far outside Antwerp. However, the two programmes gradually converged and the prospecting was done in consultation. At the time ccBe was the centre for contemporary dance and Moussem introduced upcoming choreographers from the Maghreb such as Nacera Belaza, Taoufik Izzediou and Bouchra Ouizguen. The caretaker’s converted flat was used as a residence for international artists. Concerts and family days in particular brought different communities together. According to a report by the city of Antwerp, associations of ethnic-cultural minorities also felt at home at ccBe. Between 2003 and 2007, use of the infrastructure by people from culturally diverse backgrounds increased exponentially.

In 2005 Moussem began a long-term partnership with Bozar. As a cultural metropolis in Brussels, Bozar had been trying to diversify its audience for a long time, while Moussem dreamed of programming big names for which there was not enough market in Antwerp: it was a win-win situation. At the time, the ‘world music’ circuit was still heavily dominated by booking offices that responded to the expectations of white audiences from an exotic perspective. Moussem radically shifted the focus to contemporary Arab music, both pop and classical, which tied in better with the interests of the diaspora. The first concert by protest singer Marcel Khalife in the Henry Le Boeuf Hall sold out within a fortnight: no less than 95 per cent of the audience had roots in the MENA region. Since then, Moussem has organized many adventurous, genre-crossing concerts in Bozar under the name Moussem Sounds. The Sufi Night is also a recurrent event. Through projects with the Belgian National Orchestra and the Orchestre Royal de Chambre de Wallonie, Moussem is trying to broaden the concept of classical music.

We are the cultural heritage

In 2006 Moussem was recognized for the first time as a multidisciplinary arts festival under the Arts Decree. This was a symbolic step. The urban, participative activity remained central, but the essence of the bigger story began to shift. Moussem refused to see itself as an organization ‘of and for migrants’, and demanded a place in the regular arts field in the framework of full-fledged citizenship. If cultural heritage determined the future history of a country, how could new Flemings be part of it? Many of their (grand)parents contributed to the economic prosperity of Belgium; now it was time for the next generations to leave their mark on the country’s thinking, image-formation and immaterial culture.

Based on the firm belief that all societies are equally contemporary, Moussem’s activities increasingly focused on breaking open the Western canon and dismantling Eurocentric and colonial ideas. Ikoubaân and co. went in search of multiple stories and images that were representative of the diversity of the modern city. The key moment was undoubtedly the exhibition Zonder Titel (Untitled) at M HKA in 2007. Together with artist Charif Benhelima, Moussem claimed the museum as ‘a place that also belongs to the Moroccan and other communities’(10). The directors agreed and Moussem took over this institution of the Flemish Community for three months.

Zonder Titel was anything but a classic exhibition. Rather it was a stage festival, a visual arts presentation, a meeting place and a cultural-educational experiment all rolled into one, entirely in line with Moussem’s hybrid profile. In the exhibition section, the focus was on artists(11) who refer to North Africa in a contemporary manner and counter (un)conscious assumptions about East and West. A few committed volunteers of the Moussem Club also got the chance to make their own selection of works from the collection. They had no affinity with contemporary art, but spent a year immersed in the depots of M HKA to put together a special exhibition with pieces by Anish Kapoor, Bruce Nauman and Ria Pacquée, among others(12). For Moussem it was a powerful signal: this heritage is also ours. And: contemporary art does not have to be elitist. Three years later the collection was invited to Rabat. It was one of the largest contemporary exhibitions in Morocco ever, even before the first museum for modern and contemporary art opened in Rabat.

Zonder Titel left its mark on M HKA. Works by six participating artists from the exhibition were purchased. It was the first time that artists from North Africa and the Middle East were given a place in the permanent collection. With the Moussem Collection, which began in 2019, Moussem aims to ensure that its influence on the purchasing policy of Flemish museums will last, especially now that debates about colonial looted art and the Eurocentric art market have been raging. M HKA and Mu.ZEE have committed themselves to produce, in collaboration with Moussem, an annual solo exhibition of an artist from the MENA region and to purchase a work in co-ownership with Moussem afterwards.

A nomadic house

After two years of recognition as an arts festival, in 2008 Moussem transformed into a nomadic multidisciplinary arts centre without a house of its own. The desire to break into the high-culture temples was growing, and the festival formula stood in the way of this structural anchoring. Moussem was also producing more and more and focusing on its own creations and co-creations, for both young people and adults. The arts centre model seemed better suited for this purpose.

The decision to work without infrastructure of its own was radical but fundamental. Moussem did not want to become a ‘ghetto’, but to bring together diverse audiences and frames of reference. Moreover, they wanted to force a long-term impact on the existing art centres and stimulate inclusion. In doing so, Ikoubaân and co. did not make it easy for themselves. Time and again, as the proverbial gadfly, they had to exact good will and conquer an equal place in a sector that is far from being always willing to engage in self-criticism. By then, Moussem was already known for its total approach: they not only had an artistic network at their disposal, but also brought with them alternative communication strategies, an inclusive audience outreach and a critical discourse.

The international story became increasingly important during this period. At both the local and Flemish level, foreign cultural policy was primarily geared towards diplomatic and economic interests. The city of Antwerp, for example, limited itself to actions in partnership with its sister cities (Shanghai, Cape Town and St Petersburg) and countries with which it had cultural agreements, such as South Africa(13). Moussem advocated more cooperation with the Turkish and Moroccan communities, both being strongly represented in Antwerp and Flanders. On all fronts, there was need for an adapted image-formation based on culture as a living entity: not only for a part of the ‘native’ population that was still very hostile towards their neighbours with ‘foreign’ surnames, but also for citizens from the diaspora themselves. Many first-generation citizens still have a nostalgic but outdated image of the land of their birth and pass these impressions on to their children.

For Moussem, working internationally has always been a two-way operation. The focus has of course been on Belgium, where they often spent years supporting artists with roots in the Arab region such as Youness Baba-Ali, Radouan Mriziga, Rimah Jabr and Taha Adnan until they had conquered a position in the arts landscape. Conversely, they have also introduced many new and unknown voices from the MENA region to the Belgian stages. For instance, Moussem played an important role in the breakthrough of, among others, Bashar Murkus, Youness Atbane and Randa Maroufi. Finally, they have also actively sought to connect with local structures, such as the contemporary dance festival On Marche in Marrakech, Espace Darja in Casablanca and the independent cultural organization Ettijahat in Beirut.

Between 2011 and 2014, Moussem exported its vision beyond Belgium’s borders with a project funded by Creative Europe, moussem.eu, in collaboration with Theatergroep De Nieuw Amsterdam, Liverpool Arabic Arts Festival, Casa Arabe, Reorient and the Centre Chorégraphique National de Caen et de Normandie, among others. In the wake of the Arab Spring, the Arab-European cultural dialogue seems more important than ever. This transnational initiative focused both on the dissemination of European artists with an Arab background and on the presence of non-European artists on European stages(14). As always with Moussem, artistic autonomy remained a priority. Director Sabri Saad El Hamus was given the freedom to finally do something with his love for Greek tragedies and Beckett. During the preparations of Oedipus in Egypt, he witnessed the fall of the Egyptian president Mubarak live on Tahrir Square in Cairo. It turned his performance into a powerful political statement.

The output of Moussem.eu was considerable. There were four international co-productions with premieres at the Dutch Oerol Festival and the French Festival d’Avignon. There was the realization of the exhibition I Exist (In Some Way) by the British company Bluecoat and the tour of the Arab-European Literary Salon from Stockholm to Cordoba. The stage production Waiting by Mokhalled Rasem also went on an extensive tour, including showings at the Toneelhuis and at BITEF in Belgrade.

In 2013, building further on the insights gained from moussem.eu, Moussem, its European partners and De Buren set up the multilingual conference L’Arabe de service / Do your Arab thing. All too often, Arab writers, visual artists, and actors still only gained access to the bastion of authoritative artistic productions if they played their Arab ‘trump card’, if they fit the picture of what a Westerner considers stereotypically Arabic. Conversely, artistic work was only considered worthy if it received a quality label from a white curator or institution. Choreographer Nacera Belaza knows all about this. When she was introduced in Flanders in 2007, her pieces met with resistance, but a few years later she was picked up by the prestigious Kunstenfestivaldesarts and Festival d’Avignon and suddenly she found herself in the vanguard of contemporary dance. How can we create a more dynamic and open arts landscape in which an artist is not judged on his or her identity, but on his or her artistic merits, Ikoubaân asked in the closing lecture of the conference?(15)

One of the initiatives that met that wish was Moussem Repertoire. Moussem wanted to expand the complacent Flemish canon by translating new and old theatre texts from the Arabic language region. In 2015 there was a special programme, in collaboration with Toneelhuis, on the Syrian author Saadalah Wannous. His iconic text Tuqus al-Isharat wa-I-Tahawwulat was the first Arabic theatre text to be translated and published in Dutch, under the title Rituelen, tekenen en veranderingen (Rituals, signs and changes). In dialogue with a reading group composed of directors, translators and dramaturges(16), Moussem then launched a special series with the Bebuquin publishing house. Releases included, among others, De dictator (The dictator) (Issam Mahfouz), Kop dicht en graven (Shut up and dig) (Hala Moughanie), Ik herinner het mij niet meer (I don’t remember) (Waël Ali), Geiten (Goats) (Liwaa Yazji) and Abu Hayyan al Tawhidi (Tayeb Saddiki).

For Moussem, this global canon is an ideal starting point to translate its mission to the field of higher education. Even more than on stage, the influx of students and teachers of colour in those institutions remains very limited, leading to Eurocentric curricula that reinforce Western cultural hegemony. Although it is not part of its core business as an arts centre, Moussem also wants to get a foot in the door at the basis of art production. Therefore, together with several theatre schools, they set up text projects around the Arabic repertoire.

The young generation was also actively addressed through youth theatre productions, a line which Moussem has consistently pursued since the family days at ccBe. The musical production UMM (2015), based on the life of the Egyptian star singer Umm Kulthum, was an incredible success, and Moussem and De Kolonie MT toured with it from Casablanca to Sweden. Rimah Jabr and Radouan Mriziga also took their first steps in the youth theatre circuit with Moussem’s support. Their stories brought a different cultural heritage to the Flemish stages, but are in essence universal. That is precisely what ensured a broad and diverse audience.

Cities being the engine of innovation everywhere in the world, urbanity ultimately grew to be an increasingly important focus in the Moussem story. This led to a new festival series: Moussem Cities. From 2016 onwards, Moussem and its Brussels partners focused each year on a metropolis from the Middle East or North Africa. These were cities with a rich and culturally varied history, but above all cities that play a vital role in contemporary societies through their artistic momentum. Moussem Cities is a platform for international writers, film directors, visual artists and theatre makers working on universal themes and at the same time shedding light on the local artistic context. Theatre city Tunis was the first, five years after the Jasmine Revolution. Beirut, the artistic centre of the Middle East that flourished before the civil war, the port city Casablanca, the cultural hub Algiers and Damascus followed. Given the humanitarian crisis, the latter edition called for a different approach. Moussem put together the programme in close consultation with Syrian curators and the Syrian community in Belgium, many of whom once came here as refugees.

Global stories

After 15 exciting years in Antwerp, the lure of Brussels became too strong and Moussem moved to the capital of Europe in 2014, at the same time the funding for its local operations came to an end. This set a new transformation process in motion. From 2020 onward, Moussem gave up the geographical focus on the Arab world and started from the super-diverse and metropolitan reality of Brussels, where different diasporas come together in a complex urban fabric. More than ever, Moussem wants to support artists whose work explores global stories about urbanity, modernity, globalization, identity and the canon, regardless of their origin. In this context, working locally and working internationally increasingly overlap.

And so Moussem, which was awarded the Ultima for performing arts by the Flemish Government in 2017, finally came home to a city that encompasses the world. With the purchase of a work and residency space of its own in Anderlecht, it could increasingly focus on supporting artists, both on a project basis and in the longer term. As regards programming and presentation, Moussem continues to seek out nomadically a dialogue with cultural centres in Flanders and Brussels, because that is where there is still great potential for change.

After two decades of slow emancipation, work on the sidelines and incessant knocking on doors, the arts sector finally seems convinced that it must embrace cultural diversity if it wants to remain relevant to the audiences and artists of tomorrow. The solitary energizers who tried to break open the canon in the 1980s and 1990s but failed to get in have made way for a broad, articulate generation of artists, intellectuals and activists who claim their place in front of and behind the screens. They no longer long for the recognition of a white institution and often set up their own off-spaces, or take the helm of cultural institutions themselves. Fired up by the great social debates about the West’s colonial heritage, equal rights for minorities and cultural multilingualism, there is a growing realization that more colour on stage is not enough, but that a redistribution of power is necessary. That is exactly what Moussem has been about from day one.

This text came about through conversations with Mohamed Ikoubaân and Cees Vossen.


  1. ‘International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’, https://www.amnesty.nl/encyclopedie/culturele-rechten-cultuurrelativisme-en-mensenrechten
  2. A battle they would not win until 2004.
  3. In his 1992 booklet Het Belgische Migrantendebat (The Belgian migrant debate), sociologist Jan Blommaert denounces the implicit racist bias in D’Hondt’s discourse: she was critical of, among others, the recognition of Islam as an official religion and emphasized the irreconcilability of Islamic values with the enlightened Belgian society. More on: https://jmeblommaert.wordpress.com/2015/04/01/het-debat-over-racisme-enkele-voetnoten/
  4. Federation of Moroccan Associations (FMV), ‘Over FMV: Geschiedenis’ (About FMV: history), https://www.marokkaansefederatie.be/over-fmv/geschiedenis/
  5. Association de Solidarité des Travailleurs et Commerçants Marocains. See also: Kristof Clerix, ‘Marokkaanse spionage in België’ (Moroccan espionage in Belgium), Mo*, 24 November 2015, https://www.mo.be/boek/marokkaanse-spionage-belgi
  6. Jan-Frederik Abbeloos, ‘Geen subsidies meer voor “segregerende” verenigingen’ (No more subsidies for ‘segregating’ associations), De Standaard, 22 November 2019, https://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20191122 _04730871
  7. And which in 2006 would culminate in the ‘Interculturalization’ action plan.
  8. Inge Ghijs, ‘Conservatieve moslims hinderen concertgangers’ (Conservative Muslims obstruct concertgoers), De Standaard, 17 December 2006, https://www.standaard.be/cnt/g0g15l2fa
  9. In 2004 Moussem was nominated for the culture prize for sociocultural volunteer work.
  10. Kathleen Weyts, ‘Moussem Collectie in MuZee en M HKA’ (Moussem collectionin Mu.ZEE and M HKA), Hart, 4 September 2020, https://hart-magazine.be/artikels/moussem-collectie-in-mu-zee-en-m-hka
  11. The participating artists were Wafae Ahalouch El Keriasti, Hicham Benohoud, Ali Chraibi, Abdelali Dahrouch, Hassan Darsi, Touhami Ennadre, Safaa Erruas, Khaled Hafez, Amal Kenawy, Younès Rahmoun and Studio Ifriqia.
  12. Lotte De Voeght, ‘Rencontre. Hedendaagse beeldende kunst ontmoet Marokko’ (Meeting. Contemporary visual art meets Morocco), rekto:verso, 12 April 2007, https://www.rektoverso.be/artikel/rencontre-hedendaagse-beeldende-kunst-ontmoet-marokko
  13. Culture policy diversity note (2001). For an up-to-date overview of the priorities of the Flemish Government, see: Lieven van den Weghe, ‘(Te) veel Vlaamse meesters. Het internationale cultuurbeleid van de Vlaamse regering in kaart gebracht’ ([Too] many Flemish masters. Mapping the international cultural policy of the Flemish Government), Etcetera 157, September 2019, https://e-tcetera.be/te-veel-vlaamse-meesters/
  14. Sebastien van den Bogaert, ‘Moussem lanceert Europese lente met Arabische kunsten’ (Moussem launches European spring with Arab arts), Mo*, 14 September 2011, https://www.mo.be/artikel/moussem-lanceert-europese-lente-met-arabische-kunsten
  15. Publication accompanying the conference L’Arabe de service / Do your Arab thing. Can be consulted on the website of Moussem: https://www.moussem.be/files/eu-larabe-de-service-_-do-your-arab-thing-nicolas-pascal-ea_.pdf
  16. Esther Severi, Thomas Bellinck, Sarah Eisa, Khalid Koujili El Yakoubi, Dounia Mahammed, Lore Baeten and Cees Vossen.