The renaissance was the "rebirth" of Europe. During this era there was an abundant flowering of arts, literature, science, and technology. The renaissance can be broken into the italian renaissance and the northern renaissance.
The Pieta is a marble sculpture created by Michelangelo in 1499. The sculpture is found in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome.
The Italian Renaissance
The Italian Renaissance started in Tuscany, which is in the city states of Florence and Siena. After the movement started in Tuscany it spread like wild fire through out Italy. The movement brought the beliefs of humanism, which many people started to add in the beliefs. Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, and Galileo were some of the most famous people that helped in this movement.
Petrarch was a poet from the 14th century who lay down the first parts of humanism. He wrote about the power and beauty of the human form, which was one of the main ideas of the Italian Renaissance. Michelangelos statue "David" is the perfect representation of the human form. Him and many other artists were working on expanding the boundries of art. Many other advances in sciences and arts soon spread to the northern parts of Europe.
The statue of "David" was sculpted by Michelangelo.
The creation of the printing press aloud information about the renaissance to spread around the world. From Northern Europe to England, the renaissance was spreading like wild fire.
A printing press used to make copies of the books.
Important Northern Renaissance
The northern Renaissance has a lot of people who contributed to the rise of the renaissance. Many were artists, wrighters, and theologists. Johannes Gutenberg created the printing press in the flourishment of the renaissance, and is one of the reasons that the revolution took off.
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant reformation was a 16th century European religious movement. The protests from the Catholic church was what caused the Reformation. The people broke into Luthern, Calvinism, and the Catholic church.
The break from the church.
Marthin luther and John Calvin joined together to create the two churches that broke off from the Catholic church. This inraged the church causing them to create a counter Reformation.
The catholic counter reformation.
The catholic church was starting to rebel against the rebels. They were starting to limit what the churches wrote and tried to get the people to come back to their church.
The 30 years war
The Catholic reformation started 1618, and it was 100 years after Martin Luther died. The two sides that were fighting against each other were the Protestant Union and Catholic League. In a way the protestants won because the catholic church ended up breaking into two different churches its self.
The scientific Revolution followed the renaissance because of the newly found interest in technology, and sciences. biology, physics, astronomy, and chemistry were some of the more populare studies. The scientific study was another very important aspect during this time.
astronomy was one of the more sought out topics of science to learn. There were many arguments about wether or not the universe was heliocentric of geocentric.
The many different ideas.
Aristotle, and the Catholic church all believed in a geocentric universe. Where Copernicus believed in a heliocentric universe because of the way the planets orbited.
Philosophy and science.
A french contemporary of Galileo named René Descartes believed that you needed to use both reason and observation to find the truth about the universe. Blaise Pascal, on the other hand, disagrees with René's beliefs.
Isaac Newton was a great mathematician who was a part of the Scientific Revolutions peak. He studied, and used many areas of science, including optics and calculus.
Absolutism is when all authority is given to one person. This introduced nations to kings and queens ruling over nations. The Families of the rulers ruled for a long period of time.
The kings used the divine right to rule. This means that God has granted that king power over his subjects with no revolt. Louis XIV of France is a great example of an absolute monarch.
Absolutism want accepted in all countries though. Some kings including King James I from England and his son were strong believers of divine right of kings. Both him and his son tried to rule without interference from parliament, but failed.
Absolute rulers in Russia.
In Russia the rulers took on the title of Czar instead of King. Peter the great tried to westernize Russia, but many disagreed. He forced everyone to westernize by making men wear different clothes and shave their beards, unless they paid a tax to keep them. He was a great leader in the ways that he created a navy, and spread the Russian borders.
Catherine was another Russian absolute ruler. She believed in the ideas of enlightenment. She was making incredible changes for Russia, but always kept her rule as a queen.
Enlightenment was an 18th century movement where philosophers and artists changed the point of view of societies. Voltaire, Baron de Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were some of the people, who were intrigued by the Scientific Revolution, helped create Enlightenment.
Newton and Locke.
Isaac Newton and John Locke were two important people in the base of the Enlightenment. Newton provided a base on the laws of motion and sciences. Locke had the idea that all humans are blank slates that add more and more impressions into their life.
Enlightenment was largely focused in France but was soon spreading all over. The french philosophers were taking a new look at the way people ruled.
Many rulers still wanted to rule while having the people capable of trying Enlightenment. Fredrick II of Prussia was one of those people.