This teaching has origins directly from Christ’s commissioning of Peter to be the visible head of the Church. Pope Leo the Great used biblical, historical, and legal arguments to assert the primacy of the pope among all bishops
The Second Vatican Council likewise taught on the primacy of the pope. A difference was that the Second Vatican Council began its teaching first on the ministry of the bishops and then addressed the pope in relationship to the bishops.
“The ministry of the bishop of Rome, the pope, is essential to the life of the Church. The pope is both a symbol of the Church’s unity and her principal guarantor
The pope is the spiritual leader of the Catholic Church who acts with the authority of Christ. He is the shepherd of the whole Church who leads his flock to her final home with God.