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Google與Facebook撤回進入中國的海底光纖項目 【中英對照翻譯】

來源:www.techcruch.com, February 6, 2020

新聞翻譯:ignoreme; PR: Roberts

簡評:城堡

簡評:就如文中提到的伊隆·馬斯克的SpaceX公司,中共國的諸多航天人驚詫於一個私人企業,其獵鷹重型運載火箭已經能將63噸的貨物推上近地軌道,更是千無古人地做出了能倒著飛回發射平台的可回收火箭。這使得連液氫液氧都玩不轉、液氧煤油做不好、還在使用偏二甲肼這種劇毒物質作為燃料的,以液體推進為主的中國航天工業從業者頻頻汗顏,更不用提長征系列火箭的推力比起美國冷戰初期的水平都差之甚遠……

中國的航天人不禁開始反思一向自豪無比的「舉國體制」究竟是否有問題,「中國的伊隆·馬斯克」在哪裡?事實上中共國完全出不了伊隆·馬斯克這樣的人物,因為其體制從根本上就是束縛人的思維,壓抑人的本性的。此外,在這個互聯網時代,中共國還有一個罪惡的互聯網防火牆。 在川普一條推文發出,全世界金融市場半分鐘內就會對未來的利好或利空反應到位的時代,中共國想的還是中央發佈紅頭文件,對疫情信息做到在新聞媒體上「嚴防死守」,難怪谷歌與臉書公司要放棄與大型中共國國企打交道,將其最重要的一條亞洲/北美電纜,從中共國大陸及香港地區,轉到菲律賓這一隻有一億人口的小國……

嗚呼哀哉!一個14億人的「大國」,其在國際互聯網上的影響力幾乎為0,只能計算到小數點後n個0之後的一位,遠比不上繁體中文對世界上的影響力,更不用提公開發表的學術論文等的數量。

滿清專制統治導致中國一再落後於世界,國門被船堅炮利的新式裝備轟開,同胞遭日軍俄軍凌辱,種種血淚史歷歷在目!而這次如若不能盡早滅共,結果就不是一次「中華民族的血淚史」這麼簡單了。2019年4月25日,谷歌宣佈第一條私人海底光纜Curie抵達南美洲國家智利,2019年8月19日特斯拉將將一台百公里加速不到2秒的Roadster跑車,由獵鷹重型火箭送入太空。 科技發展日新月異,超級電動跑車,可回收的火箭,私人擁有的海底光纜,這是中共國內的科研人員想都不敢想的事,舉國做也做不到的事,可在一個法治自由民主的國度,就順理成章地發生了。 如若再放由中共與現行國際秩序對抗下去,等待未來中國人的將是其他所有國家傲游於太空,6G甚至7G網絡信號由星鏈技術播放到每一個角落, 而中華大地上,共產黨為了洗腦愚民則會收繳每一個能接受信號的智能設備,文革式地大喇叭廣播,朝鮮式的播音員將重回人們視野。 屆時中華民族是否能存續下去,將會是一個大大的問號!

全面拋棄舉國體制迫在眉睫!全面打開互聯網防火牆迫在眉睫!全面消滅共匪黃俄的一黨獨裁專制體制迫在眉睫!

Google and Facebook turn their backs on undersea cable to China

Google與Facebook撤回進入中國的海底光纖項目

Tech giants' high-speed Internet link to Hong Kong has become politically toxic

科技巨頭連接到香港的高速互聯網已經成為政治毒害

Google and Facebook seem to have resigned themselves to losing part of the longest and highest profile internet cable they have invested in to date. In a filing with the Federal Communications Commission last week, the two companies requested permission to activate the Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN) between the US and the Philippines and Taiwan, leaving its controversial Hong Kong and Chinese sections dormant.

Google和Facebook似乎已經放棄他們迄今為止投資最長最矚目的互聯網電纜的一部分。在上周提交給聯邦通信委員會(FCC)的一份文件中,這兩家公司請求允許激活美國,菲律賓和台灣之間的太平洋光纜網絡(PLCN),把有爭議的香港與中共國之間的部分置於擱置狀態。

Globally, around 380 submarine cables carry over 99.5 percent of all transoceanic data traffic. Every time you visit a foreign website or send an email abroad, you are using a fiber-optic cable on the seabed. Satellites, even large planned networks like SpaceX’s Starlink system, cannot move data as quickly and cheaply as underwater cables.

全球範圍內,大約有380條海底電纜承擔了跨大洋數全部數據流量的99.5%。每次你訪問外國網站或給國外發電子郵件,都會用到海底光纖。衛星,還有像SpaceX的Starlink系統這樣的大型網絡計劃,都無法像海底光纖這樣快速且價格低廉的傳輸數據。

When it was announced in 2017, the 13,000-kilometer PLCN was touted as the first subsea cable directly connecting Hong Kong and the United States, allowing Google and Facebook to connect speedily and securely with data centers in Asia and unlock new markets. The 120 terabit-per-second cable was due to begin commercial operation in the summer of 2018.

在2017年宣佈的時候,1萬3千公里的太平洋海底光纖網絡被鼓吹為第一條香港直接連接美國的海底電纜,這使得Google和Facebook能夠快速且安全的地連接處於亞洲的數據中心,從而開拓打開新市場。120T比特每秒的電纜會在2018年夏季開始商業運營。

“PLCN will help connect US businesses and internet users with a strong and growing internet community in Asia,” they wrote. “PLCN will interconnect … with many of the existing and planned regional and international cables, thus providing additional transmission options in the event of disruptions to other systems, whether natural or manmade.”

「PLCN將會幫助美國企業和互聯網用戶與強大且不斷發展的亞洲社區建立聯繫,」他們寫到。「PLCN會與很多現有的計劃中的國際電纜相連,從而為自然或人為造成的中斷提供更多數據傳輸的選擇。」

Instead, it has been PLCN itself that has been disrupted, by an ongoing regulatory battle in the US that has become politicized by trade and technology spats with China.

然而,PLCN已經被美國正在進行的監管戰役而中斷,而且這場戰役也因為美國與中國之間貿易和技術爭端而政治化。

Team Telecom, a shadowy US national security unit comprised of representatives from the departments of Defense, Homeland Security, and Justice (including the FBI), is tasked with protecting America’s telecommunications systems, including international fiber optic cables. Its regulatory processes can be tortuously slow. Team Telecom took nearly seven years to decide whether to allow China Mobile, a state-owned company, access to the US telecoms market, before coming down against it in 2018 on the grounds of “substantial and serious national security and law enforcement risks.”

電信小組,是美國國家安全局一個神秘小組,由國防部,國土安全部,司法部(包括FBI)的一些代表組成。它的任務是保護美國電信系統安全,其中包括國際光線。它的監管流程非常緩慢。電信小組用了近七年時間來決定是否讓中國移動這個中共國有企業進入美國電信市場,之後在2018年,以嚴重的國家安全和執法風險為由拒絕其進入市場。

Although subsidiaries of Google and Facebook have been the public face of PLCN in filings to the FCC, four of the six fiber-optic pairs in the cable actually belong to a company called Pacific Light Data Communication (PLDC). When the project was first planned, PLDC was controlled by Wei Junkang, a Hong Kong businessman who had made his fortune in steel and real estate.

儘管Google和Facebook的子公司在提交給FCC的文件中作為PLCN的公開代言人,但是六對光線纖中有四對實際上是屬於一家叫太平洋光纜數據通信(Pacific Light Data Communication)(PLDC)的公司。在這項目計劃之初,PLDC是由一個靠鋼鐵與房地產發家的香港商人魏俊康控制。

“It is just one of those moments where it is more difficult to land a cable, no matter who the Chinese partner is, because of the political situation.” – NYU professor Nicole Starosielski

「這只是其中一個縮影,不管中國的合作夥伴是誰,因為政治形勢使得鋪設光纖更加困難。」紐約大學教授Nicole Starosielski說。

In December 2017, Wei sold most of his stake in PLDC to Dr Peng Telecom & Media Group, a private broadband provider based in Beijing. That sent alarm bells ringing in Washington, according to a report in the Wall Street Journal last year. While Dr Peng is not itself state-owned or controlled, it works closely with Huawei, a telecoms company the Trump administration has accused of espionage and trade secret theft. Dr Peng has also worked on Chinese government projects, including a surveillance network for the Beijing police.

在2017年12月,魏把PLDC的大部分股份賣給了鵬博士電信傳媒集團,一個位於北京的私人寬帶提供商。根據華爾街日報去年的報道,這給華盛頓方面拉響了警報。鵬博士集團本身不是國有公司或國有控制,但是它與華為這家曾被川普政府指控從事間諜活動和商業機密盜竊的電信公司有緊密的合作。鵬博士集團還參與了中國政府的項目,其中包括北京警察的網絡監控項目。

PLCN has been legal limbo ever since, with Google complaining bitterly to the FCC about the expense of the ongoing uncertainty. In 2018, it wrote, “[any further holdup] would impose significant economic costs. Depending on the length of the delay, the financial viability of the project could be at risk.”

從那時起,PLCN一直處於法律困境,Google一直向FCC抱怨由於不確定性帶來的損失。在2018年,他們這樣寫到,未來的任何停滯都會帶來巨大的經濟損失。項目的財務可行性可能處於風險中,取決於延遲時間的長短。

Google and Facebook finally secured special permission to lay the cable in US waters last year, and to construct, connect and temporarily test a cable landing station in Los Angeles. But while the network itself is now essentially complete, Team Telecom has yet to make a decision on whether data can start to flow through it.

Google與Facebook去年獲得了在美國水域鋪設電纜的特殊許可,並在洛杉磯建立,連接,和臨時測試的海底電纜登陸站。儘管網絡本身已經基本建設完成,但是電信小組還沒有決定是否讓數據在此電纜傳輸。

In the past, Team Telecom has permitted submarine cables, even from China, to land in the US, as long as the companies operating them signed what are called network security agreements. These agreements typically require network operations to be based in the US, using an approved list of equipment and staffed by security-screened personnel. Operators are obliged to block security threats from foreign powers, while complying with lawful surveillance requests from the US government.

過去,只要運營的公司簽署了所謂的網絡安全協議,電信小組都就會允許海底電纜在美國登陸,即使來自中共國。這些協議通常要求網絡操作地需要在美國進行,並且使用的設備在批准的設備清單上,由安全篩選人員進行配置並對工作人員進行安全排查。運營商有義務阻止來自於國外力量的安全威脅,同時遵守美國政府合法的監管要求。

In 2017, for example, Team Telecom gave the green light to the New Cross Pacific (NCP) cable directly connecting China and the US, despite it being part-owned by China Mobile, the state-owned company it later denied US access to on national security grounds.

例如,在2017年,電信小組批准了直接連接中國和美國的新跨太平洋(NCP)電纜,儘管該電纜的部分股權為中國移動(China Mobile)所有,但該公司後來以國家安全為由,拒絕讓美國接入該電纜。

“Normally there wouldn’t be so much fuss over a cable to China,” says Nicole Starosielski, a professor at New York University and author of The Undersea Network. “We’ve had cables to China for a long time and all of these networks interconnect, so even if they don’t land directly in China, they’re only a hop away. It is just one of those moments where it is more difficult to land a cable, no matter who the Chinese partner is, because of the political situation.”

紐約大學教授和「海底網絡」的作者Nicole Starosielski說:「正常來說,電纜進入中國不會有太大的麻煩,我們擁有鋪設到中國的電纜很久了,而且所有這些網絡都相互連通,即使電纜沒有直接進入中國,距離也只有一跳之遙。由於政治因素,無論中國的合作夥伴是誰,這一段都是更難完成鋪設一部分。」

In September, Senator Rick Scott (R-FL), who sits on Senate committees for technology, communications and homeland security, sent a letter to FCC Chairman Ajit Pai urging him to block PLCN. “[PLCN] threatens the freedom of Hong Kong and our national security,” wrote Scott. “This project is backed by a Chinese partner, Dr Peng Telecom & Media Group Co., and would ultimately provide a direct link from China into Hong Kong … China has repeatedly shown it cannot be trusted … We cannot allow China expanded access to critical American information, even if funded by US companies.”

在九月,佛羅里達共和黨參議員Rick Scott,技術、通訊和國土安全委員會成員,在給FCC主席Ajit Pai的信里敦促他阻止PLCN。Scote寫到:「PLCN威脅香港的自由和我們的國家安全,這個項目背後由中共國的合作夥伴-鵬博士電信傳媒集團支持,最終會提供一條由中國直接連到香港的電纜,我們的不能允許中共國擴大獲取美國重要信息的渠道,即使是美國公司出資」

Google and Facebook saw the writing on the wall. On January 29 last week, representatives from the two companies – but not PLDC – met with FCC officials to propose a new approach. A filing, made the same day, requests permission to operate just the two PLCN fiber pairs owned by the American companies: Google’s link to Taiwan, and Facebook’s to the Philippines.

Google與Facebook看到事情不妙。在上周1月29日這天,兩家公司的代表--不過不是FLDC--與FCC官員會面提出新的解決方案。當天提交的文件中要求允許運營其中兩對屬於美國公司的PLCN光纖:一對是Google連接到台灣,一對是Facebook連接到菲律賓。

“[Google] and [Facebook] are not aware of any national security issues associated with operation of US-Taiwan and US-Philippine segments,” reads the application. “For clarity, the [request] would not authorize any commercial traffic on the PLCN system to or from Hong Kong, nor any operation of the PLCN system by PLDC.”

申請上寫道:「Google和Facebook並沒有意識到運營美國-台灣,美國-菲律賓段光纖的國家安全問題,清楚起見,這個「請求」不會授權PLCN系統有任何來往香港的商業(數據)傳輸,和來自PLDC對PLCN的任何操作。」

The filling goes on to describe how each fiber pair has its own terminating equipment, with Google’s and Facebook’s connections arriving at Los Angeles in cages that are inaccessible to the other companies. “PLDC is contractually prohibited from using its participation interest in the system to interfere with the ownership or rights of use of the other parties,” it notes.

文件繼續描述了每對光纖如何擁有自己的終端設備,並分別與洛杉磯的Google,Facebook自己的箱子相連,而其他公司無權訪問。「根據合同,PLDC禁止利用參與者的利益干涉其他各方的擁有權和使用權。」文件中寫道。

Neither company would comment directly on the new filing. A Google spokesperson told TechCrunch, “We have been working through established channels in order to obtain cable landing licenses for various undersea cables, and we will continue to abide by the decisions made by designated agencies in the locations where we operate.”

兩家公司對文件不可以直接發表評論。一位Google的發言人告訴TechCrunch,「我們一直通過已建立的渠道努力來獲得各種海底電纜的登陸許可,我們會繼續遵守指定代理機構在我們運營所在地的決定。」

A Facebook spokesperson said, “We are continuing to navigate through all the appropriate channels on licensing and permitting for a jointly-owned subsea cable between the US and Asia to provide fast and secure internet access to more people on both continents.”

Facebook的發言人說:「我們會繼續通過各種合適的渠道為美國和亞洲共同擁有的海底光纜獲取排照和許可,為兩大洲更多的人提供快速安全的互聯網訪問。」

“I think stripping out the controversial [Hong Kong] link will work,” says Starosielski. “But whenever one of these projects either gets thwarted, it sends a very strong message. If even Google and Facebook can’t get a cable through, there aren’t going to be a ton of other companies advancing new cable systems between the US and China now.”

「我認為剔除有爭議的「香港」鏈接是可行的,」Starosielski說,「但是無論何時,項目任意一方收到阻撓,都會傳達出強烈的信息。如果Google和Facebook都不能使電纜接通,那麼現在也不會有大批其他公司可以在中美之間建立新的電纜系統」。

Ironically, that means that US data to and from China will continue to flow over the NCP cable controlled by China Mobile – the only company that Team Telecom and the FCC have ever turned down on national security grounds.

諷刺的是,這意味著美國和中國之間的數據將繼續通過NCP這個中國移動控制的電纜傳輸--這個唯一的公司,曾被電信小組和FCC以國家安全拒絕的公司。

編輯:【喜馬拉雅戰鷹團】