From The Beginning Of Time To Now: The universe By elijah

Introduction

The Universe. One of the biggest mysteries of all mankind. From Galileo Galilei in 1597, then to our present time, we have learned so much about the Big Bang, the theory of the beginning of the Universe, to other galaxies and their types, and to our very own galaxy, the Milky way. Well get prepared for the most adventurous journey of your life time, because you are going to learn about the Big Bang and also types of galaxies and some other ones, and you might even get a glimpse of the Milky Way! Get ready, get set, BLAST OFF!!!!

Here we go!

The Big Bang

The Big Bang is really just a theory, but almost the entire world believes in it (except for babies). Let us start at the very, very, very, very, very, and 1 Billion very later, very, beginning. About 13.7 years ago.

Big Bang

Fun fact! Stars in a galaxy are held together by their own gravity!

The Big Bang blasted out billions of protons, neutrons, and electrons. First Let’s start with the definition of proton, neutron and electron. A proton is a stable subatomic particle in all Atomic Nuclei With a positive charge. Subatomic means smaller than an atom. A atomic nuclei is made up of nucleons (protons and neutrons) and is surrounded by the electron cloud. ... Almost all of the mass in an atom is made up from the protons and neutrons in the nucleus with a very small contribution from the orbiting electrons. Neutrons have no charge and protons are positively charged. A neutron is also a subatomic particle but with no charge. A neutron also has the same mass as a proton. A electron is a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.. Here's what happened through out the Big Bang.

1.0 seconds after the Big Bang, they could not even measure the temperature because it was so hot, they rated fire ball in my source. 2.10-43 seconds after the Big Bang they could actually tell what the temperature was. The astronomers could tell it was 1032K. K stands for Kelvin. The measure of temperature Astronomers use. 0K is -459 Fahrenheit. That is the lowest Temperature the Universe can get. At this time a lot more protons and neutrons started forming. 3.10-35 seconds after the Big Bang. The Temperature at this time was 1027K. It was still far too hot for atoms to form, but It was getting pretty close to Helium Nucleus.

Fun Fact! Some scientists think there are other universes. This is called the Multi-verse

A helium nucleus is made of two protons and two neutrons. A proton has charge +1 and a big mass. A neutron has charge 0 and a big mass. They both have strong interactions. Protons and neutrons are made mostly of up-quarks down-quarks and gluons. A gluon is a subatomic particle of a class that is thought to bind quarks together. Quarks: any of a number of subatomic particles carrying a fractional electric charge, postulated as building blocks of the hadrons. Quarks have not been directly observed, but theoretical predictions based on their existence have been confirmed experimentally. A Hadron is a subatomic particle of a type including the baryons and mesons that can take part in the strong interaction. a subatomic particle, such as a nucleon or hyperon, that has a mass equal to or greater than that of a proton.

Fun Fact! Galaxies are more likely to collide in a local group or a super cluster.

There is so many more, I am not going to tell you about them. 4.10-7 seconds after the Big Bang the temperature was still very hot. It measured 1014K. Also, it was finally time for Helium Nucleus to start forming. But, surprisingly, still way too hot for atoms. 3 minutes after the Big Bang, billions more of Helium Nucleus started forming( this is also kinda when the big stuff stars happening, in about 300000 years). At least 300,000 years after the Big Bang, finally, what you’ve all been waiting for, some of the first atoms ever to be in our universe (hopefully), were created. In a timeline of about 200-500 million years, the universe start to fully from. Some believe that the complete opposite will happen. This is of course another theory though. This Theory is The Big Crunch Theory.

The Big Crunch Theory is when all the matter and stuff in the universe will pull back together in the middle, until everything crashes into each other and disappears.

OTHER GALAXIES AND THEIR TYPES

The first galaxy in this universe was formed about 1 billion years after the Big Bang. That was a long time ago. There are many types of galaxies. But here are some of them you will see often when looking at something galaxy related. The Elliptical galaxy, the oldest galaxy, and the least brightest, and then the spiral galaxy, the barred spiral, and last but not least, the irregular galaxy. The spiral galaxy consist of a flat disk with a bulging center and surrounding spiral arms. The galaxy's disk includes stars, planets, dust, and gas—all of which rotate around the galactic center in a regular manner.

Fun Fact! There is this thing called a Quasar . A quasar is a massive and extremely remote celestial object, emitting exceptionally large amounts of energy, and typically having a starlike image in a telescope. It has been suggested that quasars contain massive black holes and may represent a stage in the evolution of some galaxies. And they are so hot, they strem out radation.

This spinning motion, at speeds of hundreds of kilometers per second, may cause matter in the disk to take on a distinctive spiral shaped like a cosmic pinwheel. Some spiral galaxies obtain even more interesting shapes that earn them descriptive names, such as sombrero galaxies. Older stars reside in the bulge at the center of the galactic disk. Many new stars also form in spiral systems, and their disks are surrounded by a halo, which scientists believe is rich with mysterious dark matter.

Elliptical galaxies are shaped as their name suggests. They are generally round but stretch longer along one axis than along the other. They may be nearly circular or so elongated that they take on a cigar like appearance.

Elliptical galaxies contain many older stars, up to one trillion, but little dust and other interstellar matter. Their stars orbit the galactic center, like those in the disks of spiral galaxies, but they do so in more random directions. Few new stars are known to form in elliptical galaxies.

The universe's largest known galaxies are giant elliptical galaxies, which may be as much as two million light-years long. Elliptical galaxies may also be small, in which case they are dubbed dwarf elliptical galaxies.

A Elliptical Galaxy

Galaxies that are not spiral or elliptical are called irregular galaxies. Irregular galaxies appear misshapen and lack a distinct form, often because they are within the gravitational influence of other galaxies close by. Most teenage spirals, or middle aged, and very large Elliptical turn into super massive black holes. This is another type of galaxy. It’s name is Centaurus A. The fifth brightest galaxy known to man. We, or our galaxy, lives in the Virgo super cluster. A Super Cluster is a cluster of galaxies which themselves occur as clusters. The closest galaxy to us in are vast super cluster is the Andromeda Galaxy. The Andromeda galaxy Is HUGE compared to us. It measures 260,000 light years lang and twice as large as Ours. A light year is a unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year, which is 9.4607 × 1012 km (nearly 6 trillion miles).

Sometimes, somethings happens in this universe. One of them is galaxy collision. Usually when a galaxy collides with another, they form a huge Elliptical galaxy, in a timeline of about 30 billion years. BUUUUT, and that's a big but, if the galaxies don’t collide, then it takes 30-40 billion years for a galaxy to grow up to a Elliptical

MILKY WAY!!!!!!

And at last, what you’ve all been waiting for, our very own, MILKY WAY!!! The Milky way has five arms their names are The Orion Arm, Perseus Arm, Crux-Scutum Arm, Carina-Sagittarius Arm, and the Norma Arm. Here is a diagram to show you kinda what it looks like:

The Milky Way

The reason the astronomers named The Milky Way the Milky Way is because when they looked at it, it looked like milk was spilled all over the sky. Pretty cool Huh? The type of galaxy the Milky way is the Spiral or Barred Spiral, your choice. The Milky Way (as some people like to put it), is one of those galaxies not constantly spewing out energy. Well at least at the moment. The Milky Way is 100,000 light years long and about 100,000 wide.

The very center of the milky way, the Galactic center, is 60,000 light years long and 50,000 wide. the center of the galaxy is the galactic bulge. The heart of the Milky Way is crammed full of gas, dust, and stars. The bulge is the reason that you can only see a small percentage of the total stars in the galaxy. Dust and gas within it are so thick that you can't even peer into the bulge of the Milky Way, much less see out the other side. Tuck inside the very center of the galaxy is a monstrous black hole, billions of times as massive as the sun. This super massive black hole may have started off smaller, but the ample supply of dust and gas allowed it to gorge itself and grow into a giant. The greedy glutton also consumes whatever stars it can get a grip on. Although black holes cannot be directly viewed, scientists can see their gravitational effects as they change and distort the paths of the material around it, or as they fire off jets. Most galaxies are thought to have a black hole in their heart.

The bulge and the arms are the most obvious components of the Milky Way, but they are not the only pieces. The galaxy is surrounded by a spherical halo of hot gas, old stars and globular clusters. Although the halo stretches for hundreds of thousands of light-years, it only contains about two percent as many stars as are found within the disk.

Dust, gas, and stars are the most visible ingredients in the galaxy, but the Milky Way is also made up of dark matter. Scientists can't directly detect the material, but like black holes, they can measure it based on its effect on the objects around it. As such, dark matter is estimated to make up 90 percent of the mass of the galaxy.

Universe
The Universe, as we know it, as I said Before, is still a one of the largest mysteries of all time. But, also very, very, beautiful. As one great astronomer said “ Astronomy is useful because it raises us above ourselves; it is useful because it is grand. It shows us how small is man’s body, how great his mind is, since his intelligence can embrace the whole of this dazzling immensity, where his body is only a obscure point, and enjoy a silent harmony” by Henri Poincare.

Credits:

Created with images by skeeze - "spiral planetary nebula nebula universe" • WikiImages - "star clusters galaxy star" • pshutterbug - "The Big Bang" • European Southern Observatory - "An artist’s rendering of the most distant quasar" • geckzilla - "NGC2985" • skeeze - "spiral galaxy milky way whirlpool" • skeeze - "elliptical galaxy ngc 1316 cosmos"

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