## Population

#### The importance of censuses

A population census is a statistical study of the population of a country or region in a given year or period of time.

Nowadays, the number of characteristics of the people living in a certain place is fundamental to being able to take measures about the population of that place.

For example, to choose the place of construction of a school, hospital, factories or road.

The INE (National Statistics Institute) is a constitution that supervises the verification, treatment and publication of the information reached in the census.

Our land is administratively organizing in 18 district and 2 autonomous regions. The districts and the autonomous regions are separated in municipalities or municipalities and these in parishes.

#### The administrative / statistical divisions

Our land is administratively organizing in 18 district and 2 autonomous regions. The districts and the autonomous regions are separated in municipalities or municipalities and these in parishes.

NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units) have been made to standardize statistical information throughout the European Union: NUTS I; NUTS II; NUTS III.

NUTS I correspond to 3 territorial units

NUTS II corresponds to 7 territorial units

NUTS III corresponds to 25 territorial units

#### Distribution of population in Portugal

It is not enough to know the total number of inhabitants of a given space to say that it is very or very sparsely populated. We also have to take into account the area of ​​this space. Only then can we know its population density, (knowing the number of inhabitants per square kilometer).

In the continent, the coast is the most densely populated area, mainly to the north of Sado. It is also on the coast that are located the main cities of the country and large number of industries. The jobs are in greater numbers and the roads and transport are better. The population density in Madeira is higher than in the Azores.

#### The evolution of the population in Portugal and its relation with natural growth

In 2011 Portugal had a total of more than 10 million inhabitants. In order to study the evolution of the birth rate of a region or country, we used the rates in [‰], which makes these data easier to compare. In general, some exceptional periods, the birth rate and the death rate have been declining.

Causes of declining birth rates:

The number of mothers working outside the home is increasing:

The education of the children is expensive and increases every year the lack of houses or very high incomes.

Causes of decreased mortality:

Better food better health services and hygiene habits.

#### The contribution of the migratory balance to the evolution of the population in Portugal

In the 20th century, the Portuguese population grew very suddenly. In the period of large population migration and reduce number. In contrast, the large number of people moved to Portugal.

Difference between the number of people entering immigration and the number of people leaving migration in a given time and country, we call migratory balance.

During the first half of the century, Portuguese emigrants preferred to install Brazil. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Portuguese emigrated mainly to Spain, France, Brazil, United States, Canada, Angola. South Africa and Mozambique.

Immigration, compared to emigration, has always had little meaning. The number of foreigners who settled in our country was relatively low until 1980. Since 1980, the number of immigrants has increased. Currently, the largest number of immigrants comes from Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique, Brazil, Eastern Europe (Ukraine and Romania) and China. Most immigrants work in construction, in commerce, in unskilled services and in agriculture.

#### The evolution of the Portuguese population by age group

The population census provides beyond counting, and data that allow to characterize this population. According to data from 2013, the age group with the largest number of adults was the group of adults, followed by that of the young and the last among the elderly. Comparing the number of males and females in young males is higher than females, in the adult group it is reversed. In the final count the number of women is higher than that of men.

Credits:

Created with images by rick ligthelm - "Porto, Portugal" • Pedro Nuno Caetano - "Viseu" • Leandro's World Tour - "Torre de Belém" • tpsdave - "lisbon portugal city"

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