Islam and Christianity By: Samuel West

Jesus christ, lord, master, logos, son of god, son of man, son of david, lamb of god, new adam/ second adam, light of the world and king of the jews. These are the names of the founder of christianity. He was born between 1 and 4 bc in mid to late september. His lifespan was about 33 years. Little is know about his early childhood, he was raised by his parents mary and joseph, joseph was a carpenter and he taught jesus to be one as well. Christianity started with the ministry of christ in levant, which is known as israel and palestine. Jesus taught at the ministry when he was about 30. He had many friends including john the baptist and his twelve apostles. He and the twelve apostles went around teaching people about his new religion. Many people believed him, but many also hated him. Him and his father were shunned upon by their people because of jesus’ beliefs. So much so that they crucified him on a cross with two other criminals. After he died his apostles and a few believers saved his religion by continuing to spread it across the middle east.
Prophet Muhammad was born in 570 CE in the city of mecca in the arabian peninsula. His father died shortly after he was born which left him for his grandfather to care for. Shortly after, his mother died, and shortly after that he also lost his grandfather, which then left him to his uncle. Muhammad is the central figure of Islam and widely regarded as its founder by non-Muslims. He is known as the "Holy Prophet" to Muslims, almost all of whom consider him to be the last prophet sent by God to mankind to restore Islam, believed by Muslims to be the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim people and ensured that his teachings, practices, and the Quran, formed the Islamic religious belief. His death was as normal is it could be, he lived his last days in fever, he never claimed divinity, or that he was a god, he was a human just like us, he died a natural death at the age of 63. After he died his close companion Umar, nominated abu bakr to be the next leader of islam. Others added their support, and abu bakr was made the first caliph. This was disputed by some of muhammad’s companions, who believed that ali, his cousin and son in law, had been designated his successor.

The protestant church was the end result of protests against the catholic church. A leading figure in this was Martin Luther, who one day nailed a list of his objections to a church door. His objections included the tradition of selling "indulgences" and other facets of Catholicism. His actions focused discontent among European rulers against the Pope and Catholicism. The protestant movement in England was centered on Henry VIII and his wish to marry whoever he wanted, when he wanted. He latched on to Protestantism as a vehicle to to resolve his situation, creating the Church of England.

Martin Luther was a monk who taught at a Catholic university in the German town of Wittenburg (located southwest of Berlin). Like many others, he feared that the Roman Catholic Church had become too corrupt to provide people with the guidance they needed to obtain salvation. Luther thought that individuals could seek salvation on their own, without relying on priests. On October 31, 1517, he attempted to provoke a debate on reform by nailing a list of 95 questions to the door of the Wittenburg university cathedral. (luthers 95 thesis) The debate became public when some unknown person reprinted his ideas in a pamphlet which was eventually distributed throughout Germany.

1. The Pope. Catholics have a Pope, which they consider a vicar for Christ — an infallible stand-in, if you will — that heads the Church. Protestants believe no human is infallible and Jesus alone heads up the Church.

2. Big, Fancy Cathedrals. Catholics have them; Protestants don’t. Catholicism says that “humanity must discover its unity and salvation” within a church. Protestants say all Christians can be saved, regardless of church membership.

3. Saints. Catholics pray to saints (holy dead people) in addition to God and Jesus. Protestants acknowledge saints, but don’t pray to them.

4. Holy Water. Catholics only.

5. Celibacy and Nuns. Catholics only.

Council of trent: The Council of Trent (Latin: Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trento and Bologna, northern Italy, was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important councils. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.

The inquisition: a group of institutions within the government system of the catholic church who tried to combat heresy. It started in france and tried to combat the few groups trying to separate from the catholic church.

The peace of augsburg: temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation. Each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his lands

ISLAM

The founder of islam is muhammad. He was born on the year 570 in mecca, arabia and died on june 8th, 632.

As a boy he lived a pretty traumatizing childhood. All of his immediate family died and he was raised an orphan by his uncle.

later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, where he stated he received his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to him is the only way to God, and that he was a prophet and messenger of God.

In the beginning only poor people seemed to accept his teachings. But within the next 2 decades nearly all of the arabs accepted his religion. Before his preaching, the mecca people worshiped many idols and were terrible to their women. Because the poor were treated so badly they accepted it quicker than the rich people who were content with where they were.

Muhammad's death is a very common death of his time, he died of a common fever. He died in his 60s, he never claimed that he was a god or “special being” he was a normal person just like us.

After muhammad’s death, Umar, a companion of muhammad, nominated abu bakr. Many others supported his decision and abu bakr was made the first caliph

The split between the sunni and the shiites was caused by muhammad's death. After Mohammed’s death in 632, leadership of the Islamic community passed to Abu Bakr as his successor, one of Muhammad’s closest companions. Some in the community felt that this succession was not legitimate, and that the title of caliph really belonged to Ali ibn Abi Talib. Ali’s claim was supported by the fact that he was Muhammad’s cousin, his adopted son, his first believer, and husband of his daughter Fatima. Both sides believe that Mohammed specifically designated their man.

Supporters of Abu became the Sunnis, those of ibn Ali the Shiites. There are a few reasons why the sunni and shia split from each other. It all started with the death of muhammad, the debate between the next leader initially started all of it. There were massacres, and mass killings. The Sunni stance led Shia to reject politics as impure and argue that religion and the secular affairs of the state should always be separated.

The basic doctrines of Islam are collectively known as the Five Doctrines of Islamic Faith. They include a belief in the absolute unity of God, belief in angels, belief in prophets, belief in scriptures, and belief in the Final Judgment.

The faith of Islam spread very quickly after the death of the Prophet Mohammad in 632 A.D., largely due to three factors. These were, the ease of conversion, the political consolidation of the Islamic state and the remarkable military effectiveness of Islamic armies

Number of islams and why they are spreading so fast: It was estimated in 2010 that the amount of islams in the world are close to 1.6 billion. Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world and is expected to outstrip Christianity by the end of the century. The number of Muslims will grow more than twice as fast as the world's population from now until 2050.

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Samuel West
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