Afghanistan History By: Yusuf saleh & Mohammed Sheikhelard

Afghanistan has always been a tense country. It has been taken over by many groups of people, including the the Persians, Greeks, British, Russians. It has also had a history of commerce and peace with its surrounding countries.

Timeline

1838-42 - British forces invade, install King Shah Shujah. He is assassinated in 1842. British and Indian troops are massacred during retreat from Kabul.

1878-80 - Second Anglo-Afghan War. A treaty gives Britain control of Afghan foreign affairs.

1919 - Emir Amanullah Khan declares independence from British influence.

1933 - Zahir Shah becomes king and Afghanistan remains a monarchy for next four decades.

1973 - Mohammed Daud seizes power in a coup and declares a republic. Tries to play off USSR against Western powers.

1978 - General Daud is overthrown and killed in a pro-Soviet coup. The People's Democratic Party comes to power but is paralyzed by violent infighting and faces opposition by US-backed mujahideen groups.

Soviet Intervention

1979 December - Soviet Army invades and props up communist government..

1985 - Mujahideen come together in Pakistan to form alliance against Soviet forces. Half of Afghan population now estimated to be displaced by war, with many fleeing to neighbouring Iran or Pakistan.

1986 - US begins supplying mujahideen with Stinger missiles, enabling them to shoot down Soviet helicopter gunships. Babrak Karmal replaced by Najibullah as head of Soviet-backed regime.

1988 - Afghanistan, USSR, the US and Pakistan sign peace accords and Soviet Union begins pulling out troops.

1989 - Last Soviet troops leave, but civil war continues as mujahideen push to overthrow Najibullah.

1992 - Najibullah's government toppled, but a devastating civil war follows.

Red Army Quits

1996 - Taliban seize control of Kabul and introduce hard-line version of Islam, banning women from work, and introducing Islamic punishments, which include stoning to death and amputations.

1997 - Taliban recognised as legitimate rulers by Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. They now control about two-thirds of country.

1998 - US launches missile strikes at suspected bases of militant Osama bin Laden, accused of bombing US embassies in Africa.

US-led Invasion

2001 October - US-led bombing of Afghanistan begins following the September 11 attacks on the United States. Anti-Taliban Northern Alliance forces enter Kabul shortly afterwards.

Hamid Karzai is sworn in as head of an interim power-sharing government.

2002 January - Deployment of first contingent of foreign peacekeepers - the Nato-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) - marking the start of a protracted fight against the Taliban.

2003 August - Nato takes control of security in Kabul, its first-ever operational commitment outside Europe.

Works Cited

"Afghanistan Profile - Timeline." BBC News. BBC, 21 Nov. 2016. Web. 24 Jan. 2017.

"Around The World." Afghanistan Timeline | TIME For Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2017.

Sherlick, Jeremy, and Greg Bruno. "U.S. War in Afghanistan." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2017.

Credits:

Created with images by ArmyAmber - "soldiers military uniform" • AfghanistanMatters - "Landing Helicopters" • TKnoxB - "T54" • RussianTrooper - "091229-A-3421S-007" • ResoluteSupportMedia - "110403-A-3994P-147"

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