Dred Scott was a slave when he traveled to Illinois and Minnesota with his master. He claimed that since he was in free territory, that he should be freed. Chief justice roger Taney disagreed and said that slaves would never have an American citizenship.
the emancipation proclamation
Abraham Lincoln gave an order called the emancipation proclamation. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." Even though, Lincoln demanded an end to slavery, this proclamation was not effective.
when the Civil War ended, Lincoln wanted to end slavery everywhere in the United States for good. In order to do this, he needed to make an amendment, or an add-on, to the US Constitution. the 13th amendment was approved by 27 out of 36 states and was ratified, or accepted, 1865. it officially banned any form of slavery, and it canceled out any of the old laws that supported slavery.
All persons born or naturalized in the United states and subject to the jurisdiction that, are citizens of the United States and of the State where they live. Addresses the rights of citizens
The 15th Amendment made it illegal to deny another man the right to vote based on race. This made it legal for all men no matter the race to be able to vote for president.
The supreme court ruled that segregation is ok as long as African Americans are given equal accommodations as others. that meant that there would be separate water fountains, medical care, and even public schools for black Americans.
1954 Brown v Board of Education
in Topeka, Kansas when court established that separating black and white schools was unconstitutional and unlawful.
1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott
In Montgomery, Alabama and other places in the US, there were separate seats on the bus for black people and for white people. one day, Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to give up her seat for a white man. she was arrested and thrown into jail. for over a year, African Americans boycotted, or refused to ride, the city buses. finally, on December 21, 1956, the supreme court declared the segregated bus rules unconstitutional.
9 black students enrolled in an all white school (little Rock Central High School) and the high school was legally un-segregated and the national guard came in to tell them that they had to let them in.
A protest when demonstrators occupy a place refusing to leave until they get their way. In Greensboro, North Carolina 4 black college students sat at a white only table and even though the restaurant wouldn’t serve them they refused to leave until they got their orders.
November 1960 Ruby Bridges
New Orleans schools were still segregated in 1960. first grader Ruby Bridges was chosen as one of the clack students to attend a previously white school. she and her mother were escorted to school by federal marshals. many of the white students were pulled out of school by their parents, but Ruby continued to attend and eventually graduated high school and college.
some people decided to protest segregation is different ways. Freedom Riders were people who rode buses to segregated areas of the south to protest and challenge the laws. the freedom Riders were people of many different raced who all believed that segregation was wrong..
first African American who attended the University of Mississippi in 1962. At first he was accepted into the school, but as soon as the school officials learned his race, they rejected his application. the supreme court ruled that he could attend, but when he arrived at college, the entrance was blocked. eventually, he was able to successfully attend and graduate with a degree in political science.
1963 I have a dream speech
Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous "i have a dream speech' to a crowd of over 250,00 people.the people had gathered as part of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. he called for US citizens to end racism. his speech and the march encouraged the president to pass laws against discrimination.