Gros Morne National Park By: Carmen Chuong, Magdalena Jakovljevic & Khyathi Rao

About The Park

Pictures of the beautiful scenery at Gros Morne National Parks

- Gros Morne is located in the West Coast of Newfoundland

- The park was established in 1973

- October 1st 2005 - became a national park

- Is a UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) heritage site

- Gros morne is a boreal forest that provides shelter and food for wildlife

- Boreal forests release oxygen and absorb carbon, slowing down climate change

- The national park is 1,805km2 and is the 2nd largest park in Atlantic Canada

The ocean’s crust and the mantle’s rocks are exposed, demonstrating a hard to find example of the continental drift - this is exposed by the reduction process of plate tectonics and sedimentary rocks

Geologists discovered the theory of plate tectonics at this location

Made up of the eroded remains from a mountain range that formed 1.2 billion years ago

Colliding glaciers and the grinding of glaciers formed the landscape

Geographic History

- It took 485,000,000 years to shape Gros Morne into the national park it is today

- The park is living proof of the movement of plate tectonics

- Glaciers carved the Western Brook Pond

- The rocks of the park were folded, faulted and uplifted by the wide movements of the Earth’s crust

- 1,200 million years ago (Precambrian era), Eastern North America collided slowly into another continent to form a mountain range which is now known as the Long Range Mountains

- 100 million years after, the park drifted upwards

- The last 2 million years have been full of repeated glaciation, deglaciation and sea level changes, which formed the visual aspect of the park we see now

- Continental collision continued for 100 million years

Human History of Gros Morne

People fishing in Gros Morne before it was declared a national park

- Maritime Archaic Indians from Labrador found this land 5000 years ago and settled in this area

- 4000 years later, Europeans from Greenland came over to Gros Morne

- In the early 1900s, moose were introduced to Newfoundland as a source of food

Physical Features

- Rock formations include sedimentary rocks & igneous rock

- Rocky and tundra like slopes that includes foothills, mosses and fjords

- Many beaches and bogs (Wet muddy grounds that are unable to support heavy weight).

- Newfoundland’s second highest mountain peak is located here, it's named Gros Morne & the park takes its name after it. Gros Morne is part of the Long Range mountains

- The rock structures are very interesting - profiles of faces or other shapes can be found on the rocks. For Eg. a face can be seen on the ‘Old Man of the Mountain’

The profile of 'The Old Man of the Mountain'

Soil/Rock Formation

- Many types of soil formations make various bedrock available in the park.

- Contains Oceanic rock and Mantle rock, formed during Ordovician period, like Precambrian Granite and Paleozoic igneous rocks.

- Some sedimentary rocks like dolomitic limestone in southeastern part of the park. The Cox’s Cove has an abundance of shale, slate, limestone and sandstone. The Serpentine Range has infertile soils due to its stony nature.

Flora & Fauna

The flora and fauna of Gros Morne National Park

- Caribou, arctic hare, moose, ptarmigans, lynx, black bear, marten

- There is an abundance of moose and caribou

- Region supports whales and sea ducks

The myriad of wildlife that makes Gros Morne unique!

- There are bogs with carnivorous plants such as venus flytrap, sundews and pitcher plants

- Tourists at Gros Morne National Park

Recreational Activities

-Some activities include kayaking, fishing, geocaching, swimming, camping, cycling and hiking.

-Different formats of skiing and snowmobiling are winter favourites.

- Abundance of moose offers moose-spotting along trails.

- The park offers 51.9 km of maintained cross country ski trails

- The ski season in the park is January to April

- Temperatures will be around -6C in January, -8C in February and -5C in March

Maritime climate-near Atlantic Ocean

- Kayaking can be affected really easily by weather and wind

- Strong eastern winds especially since it is offshore on the coast

Key Issue

- High moose population

- There are few predators so there is nothing balancing the moose population

- Moose is eating too many young trees, ruining the regenerating tree cycle

- They eat the twigs of trees and too much of the park's vegetation

- In wintertime, when there are not a lot of vegetation, moose will eat great amounts of shrubs and trees

- They eat about 25 kg of food a day

- Without growth of trees, the forest becomes thin and turns into grassland or scrub

- 25 years ago, satellite images show how full of greenery the park was versus now and how thinned out it is

Interfering with the regeneration cycle

- Moose are eating so much vegetation that it has forced other animals to move their habitats to different regions

- There are around 6 moose per square kilometer of forested area, one of the highest densities of North America

- During the wintertime, when there is little to no vegetation, moose will eat great amounts of shrubs and trees

- Without the growth of trees, the forest becomes thin and turns into grassland or scrub

- 75% of the forest has no more capacity of regenerating the vegetation without the moose consuming it

Possible Solutions

-Pilot project (2011)/Parks Canada planning to remove moose by licensed hunters.

-Selected hunting participants are allowed a quota of 950 moose in the 2016-17 year, only 46 hunted so far.

-Since 2011, 2000-3000 moose have been terminated from Gros Morne.

-Hunting grounds raised from 20% to 40% and now to 90%.

-Goal of hunting: reduce moose population to allow vegetation recovery

-Last year, with 500 moose licenses being permitted, 200 moose were hunted

- Much controversy around the idea of hunting as a solution since it may go against the goal and may endanger the species

- Newfoundland government's Moose Management System's plan: To make moose density equal in habitable areas

- The park only supports a few such areas that are applicable for moose.

-The Moose Management plan strives to accommodate social/cultural values, by consulting citizens.

Our Ideas

- A possible solution could be providing the moose with a diet that doesn't include the park's vegetation.

- Transferring moose to parks that have a shortage; Pukaskwa National Park.

Thanks for Listening!

Twitter: @MiloTheM00se

Hashtag: #MoveTheMoose

Credits:

Created with images by inottawa - "Boulders at Salmon Point" • JWCinsecc - "Limestone" • jitze - "Black Bear" • bfick - "Bog" • DenaliNPS - "Willow Ptarmigan" • Unsplash - "arctic hare mountain hare polar" • VisitGrosMorne - "Kayaking Gros Morne" • azule - "Moose" • daveynin - "Pine Trees Destroyed by Fire"

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