DNA- Also known as Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is the information to create a living organism and its traits. DNA is a double stranded form in a helix shape. This shape and double halves of the DNA makes it very secure, and unlikely to mutate by itself. DNA is found in all life, from single to multi-cellular organisms.
Offspring- A offspring is a new life form created by one or more lifeforms. An offspring is not only a conventional human child, but can also be a cell divison from one cell to two, or any other animals child.
Bacteriophage- A Bacteriophage is a specialized virus that specifically targets bacterium, not living cells like human or multicellular animal cells. A Bacteriophage is like any other virus, as it uses the bacterium to replicate and infect more bacteria, etc.
Organism- An organism is any type of life form, like a single celled, multi celled, animal, or plant. The only restriction for the term "organism" is that the life form must be living.
RNA- Unlike DNA, RNA (ribonucleic acid) is only one strand of DNA. This makes the RNA very susceptible to mutation. RNA is commonly only found in certain bacteria and most viruses. (influenza is RNA, which is why it mutates and requires us to vaccinate every year for it.)
Genetic Mutation- A genetic mutation is the change in DNA or RNA at random in an organism. The mutation is a natural occurrence, and not an artificial change, which is called a genetic modification. Mutations take place when a DNA or RNA copies and re-creates itself, and messes up one of the letters th the chain. (an A letter becomes a T letter, etc.) This is more common in RNA, since there is no second strand to check its partner letter, like DNA. (as shown below)
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