This is the Judicial Branch, the Supreme Court. This branch has nine members. When appointed these members serve for life. For this particular job, there is no age limit, all that is required is for you to be a U.S. citizen. The main power of the Judicial Branch is deciding whether an act, law, or bill else is unconstitutional.
This is the Legislative Branch, otherwise known as the Congress. In the legislative branch, there is the House of Representatives and the Senate. In the House, there are 435 members, and in the Senate there are 100 members. All members of the Congress are elected. In the house the term lasts for 2 years. The term for the Senate lasts for 6 years. Powers of this branch vary for each, the Senate and the H.O.R. Both have the ability to pass a law. The House has the power to originate spending bills. The Senate has the ability to impeach the president of the United States or the Vice President. Another power of the Senate is to approve treaties.
This, is the Executive Branch. This is where the president lives, or the White House. There are 17 members. That includes the Vice President and The President. The term lasts for 4 years before the president has a chance of being re-elected for one last term. The president is elected instead of appointed. The age requirement for the presidency is 35, and to be elected you have to have been a natural born U.S citizen and have lived in the U.S. for 14 years. A power of this branch is that they have the ability to veto proposals, they are able to appoint members of government agencies, and they are able to negotiate with other countries. [How is the President of the United States elected?] --> [ First there are caucuses and primaries indicating the popular vote of the people. National conventions are held, followed by the general election, and lastly the electoral college.]
Federalism is the shared power between the central government and the U.S. States. Federalism helps small states like Vermont because it gives small states the opportunity and power to represent themselves.
Checks and Balances is the system that allows one branch of government to limit another if they feel that one is abusing their power. This insures that all of the power is never in one person, or groups hands.