One of the most important ones is limited government, the government has power but the people have more power to make decisions for the country, like the president for example, When the pilgrims left England to live in the U.S., one of the reasons they left is because the government had too much power. So it was important to them to give the power to the people.
A picture showing how certain powers are separated throughout the government
The separation of powers adds on the the limited government. The separation of powers prevents a certain branch from ruling over the other branches. All branches have different powers than the others to help separate the powers of the government. Like for example the Legislative branch, which is made up of the Senate and house of Representatives, has the ability to make laws, where the other branches do not.
A diagram showing how different branches checks another's power
Checks and Balances is when one branch checks the power of another in order to balance it out. An easier way of saying that is one branch controls the power of another branch. As James Madison once said, “Ambition must be made to counteract ambition” We can conclude from this that a system of checks and balances was made to use each branch’s 'ambition' to check the ambition of the other.