The Shepherd of all Medicines; Pharmacogenomics and you: A PRESENTATION ABOUT THE EXISTENCE OF PHARMACOGENOMICS AND HOW THEY AFFECT US TODAY

Pharmacogenomics (drug-gene testing) is an amazing genetic test that helps all people of all ages. Essentially, pharmacogenomics is the extensive study on how genes affect an organism's response to medications. It is the common day practice to simply just create medications that can be handed over the counter with no deep exploration on whether or not the meds will actually be effective. Pharmacogenomics is used to explore someone's genetic code to find a version of a medication that is not harmful and will work best for the person's needs. While pharmacogenomics is still in its developing stages it has a bright future that many anticipate. With a open mind, that is why 20 million dollars of government funds should be sent to support this genetic testing 100%, while the others (forensics, cloning, GE crops) will receive none. Through looking at good and bad works, specialized work is being done, and analyzing serious side effects can be seen to highlight the idea of Drug Gene testing needing a fund

Why Pharmacogenomics are Good for Everyone:Pharmacogenomics are more efficient than GE crops, forensics, and cloning. When taking DNA to make sure the medicine is for the patient they only have to take DNA once. By using that person’s specific DNA the medicine is chosen for that person based on their DNA. Not every medicine comes with these specific tests. Drug-gene testing will improve the lives of cancer patients and other patients by giving them better treatment. Finally, pharmacogenomics can save patients from a deadly medication which they were going to take. Understanding the benefits of drug-gene testing lets us explain why people should not choose the other options. Forensics supports the idea of being bad for the fact that when you deal with the items used for DNA profiling you have to deal with precautions. Such as a blue light transmitter; it will give you eye damage, pouring gels that molten hot; causes burns, waste tips; very sharp and hazardous, and lastly they have to work with power packs which are not electrically safe. Now moving into more medical areas let's talk about cloning. When creating a new life there can be chance that there will be a mutation which will cause abnormalities in the clone that can be potentially life threatening and if they do live it can still be very dangerous. Now to move onto the food that patients would eat, GE crops. Being bred with different plants they are creating new allergies to crops that people were originally able to eat it without any issues. Through looking into good vs. evil, one can start to realize that Pharmacogenomics is the good side to fund, while GE crops, cloning, along with forensics, are working together as evil.

A Double Helix with People in Mine: Looking at pharmacogenomic testing, one is able to come to conclusion that this testing is specialized DNA work done for the people, to even come up with the best dosage, while cloning, GE crops, and forensics focus on the interests of a general crowd of people. Adding on to this specialized DNA work, supporting pharmacogenomics is just like supporting the research of DNA in that of medical specialists whom are studying DNA bases. A fund in this aspect would help create improvements in genome sequencing1, which is used consistently through this genetic tests, and somewhat in the other three aspects. This closer look at DNA allows for hired medical professionals to pinpoint what a person needs, while one guess the others don’t. Imagine personalized healthcare options, instead of a plan in general (which in the case of the other 3 categories is the case). As earlier discussed this can be the medicine given, but that is not it for they also use these genes they find to help come up with the best dosage plan. The truth is we all digest and use medicine differently. One can be undertreated or perhaps overtreated. In the case of some people they have a high metabolism rate for medicine, so they can metabolize to drug to quick, so it doesn’t have enough time to let the medicine have enough time to interact and kill things off, like cancer cells. This is what can be considered as being under treated. However for others, they can be overtreated. In this case, the person has a slow metabolism, so they break up the drug slowly and in some case not at all, so the patient is subjected to the drug too long, thus they have higher levels of toxicity. Pharmacogenomics is the key to eliminating the risk of not getting something, or being poisoned. This clearly highlights the idea of the structure of this form of pharmacogenomics is based especially on the goodness of the people. Again, this is highlighted by GE crops, cloning, and forensics. The truth is that with GE crops the idea of good antibiotic features is bad for these antibiotics can work against treating a patient’s treatment. Cloning is seen next, with a big no for people for the fact that cloning organs to be put in a person can be mutated, thus the body wants to reject it. Cloned body parts are not meant for people. Lastly is forensics, where your DNA can be used against you, such as health insurance companies could find any info that you are prone to a health issue, thus they deny deny coverage. Scoping up information like this, brings light to the idea that pharmacogenomics needs all the funding it can get for it is doing specifically for the person, while forensics, cloning, and GE crops focus with a broad scope, when really the people are not in the vision.

The process of Genome Sequencing: 1Footnote: In this process DNA is extracted from the chromosomes inside of the blood cell or saliva sample collected. This DNA is then placed with the sequencing instrument where some very high frequency waves sound waves are sent. Thus to the result of this fast frequency, the DNA breaks into smaller chunks you can say are about 600 chemical bases long. Then in simplest terms, special tags attach to the end of the DNA strands, which then attach to a glass slide. Meanwhile, they are still contained within the sequencer, where they are being copied hundreds of thousands of times. As some refer to it, it creates “clusters” of DNA that the same. Not to long after this, colored tags that coordinate with bases are released to connect to the different bases at a level one at a time. Then, sensors in the machine start to analyze the tags and copy them down as base colored letters that coordinate to the bases. This information is sent to a specialized computer that then pieces together these letter/color codes onto a computer. Soon after, a specialized team of experts use software to compare the DNA sequences to find variants that they see might impact results of having certain medicine. The end result, is medical professionals can give patients to right medicine to a person.

Serious Side Effects of Funding the Wrong Path: Through looking into the morals of what can else happen, comes the idea that Pharmacogenomics helps prevent side effects, while the others, forensics, cloning, and GE crops cause serious ones. All the allotted funding for genetic research should focus needs to be focused on drug-gene testing, just for that reason. Looking into the background of drugs one can see that serious or deadly side effects can be caused do to the wrong kind of response a person having the wrong medicine. This is especially seen the in wise old people whom are older than 65, who get the huge impacts from them, but still have the most issues. In fact serious drug-related effects are the 4th leading cause of death in the US. Helping people, shouldn’t mean killing people, that is why pharmacogenomics really needs to spread its wings with the help of funds to help people avoid this statistic. Drugs for health reasons are meant for good, we can’t let people die so medical professionals should really try to start testing people’s DNAs to find out if what they are taking is really doing its job. However, the one flaw is that other factors do impact a person’s reaction to medications. These include foods, supplements, medical conditions, and medicines, but that is another reason this testing needs more funds, so that it can improve and see how genes+certain things = disasters. Thus, the statistics, can be said to be gone. Using this idea, one can truly start to envision what funds can do for drug-gene tests. On the other hand, there is the three misfits of genetic research: GE crops, cloning, and forensics. With GE a serious side effect is that with modified foods being created by modified bacteria and viruses, means that could be new diseases that could cause issues. Then with cloning, is that with entirely new genes there can be a creation of entirely new illnesses and diseases, that can devastate everyone. Lastly with forensics is the idea that there is a chance that someone else with a similar DNA profile to the person who did the crime, could be accused and be put on a death trial, when they are not a fault. With all these serious risks of forensics, cloning, and GE crops, we need to look to taking steps in the direction of pharmacogenomics, using funding.

In conclusion, pharmacogenomics is a widely anticipated field of science that is revolutionary to the way that food is grown, and how medicines will be created and assigned. As with many things, this practice does have its advantages and disadvantages and while it does have a long way to go development wise it looks like it will bring about a promising future for mankind. With 20 million dollars, pharmacogenomics will be able to impact the world for the better.

Pharmacogenomics [Farm-a-co-ga-nom-ics]: the study of the relationship between a specific person's genetic makeup and his or her response to drug treatment (dictionary. com)

All about the Authors:

(Note: that these are fake based on the kind of people we should be)

Sandy Kellogg: Has a weird bedtime and is known to draw on anything that stays still long enough, can make things out of metal. Is metal. Will always be metal.

Hannah Moore: Hannah is a therapist’s assistant that talks to patients who are in the testing phase of Pharmacogenomics.

Kena Rindfleisch: Kena has mastered genetic engineering in the medical fields, with a PH degree in research breakthrough. She has been keenly interested into genetic engineering in terms of pharmacogenomics providing a better world for the all of us.

Jesse O’Leary: Jesse is a total sponsor. He is always only providing the ideas he has for what he needs, not help like all sponsors.

Citations:

mayoresearch.mayo.edu e

cisncancer.org

www.geneticstesting.com

genelex.com

http://thelawdictionary.org/article/pros-cons-of-dna-fingerprinting/

http://www.life.org.uk/dump/media/dna-fingerprinting-dna-fingerprinting-risk-assessment-0312.pdf

http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/7275.aspx

http://connectusfund.org/27-big-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-genetically-modified-foods

http://thenextgalaxy.com/12-disadvantages-and-advantages-of-human-cloning/

http://flowpsychology.com/10-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-cloning/

http://greengarageblog.org/13-essential-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-cloning

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/genomicresearch/pharmacogenomics

Credits:

Created with images by ColiN00B - "dna dns biology" • WerbeFabrik - "medical tablets pills" • FotoshopTofs - "microbiologist scientist pathologist" • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Midwest Region - "Whitney Genetics Lab DNA Sequencer" • stevepb - "gm food banana chourico" • qimono - "doors choices choose"

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