What I chose for the Civil Rights Movement is involving police brutality in the United States. There are many issues including racism that have led to this event. To explain this, "Police Brutality" is the abuse of authority by the excessive use of force while preforming their official duties. It is the unwarranted infliction of force by personnel involved in law enforcement. The term is also applied to abuses by corrections officers in the higher up, state, federal penal facilities and also military prisons. While police force usually applied to harm, it also involves psychological harm through the use of tactics beyond police procedure. In the past, those who engaged in police brutality may have acted with the approval of the local legal system or may be rouge officers. They may penetrate actions under color of law and engage in subsequent cover-up of illegal activity
The word Brutality has many meanings: savage cruelty was first used in 1633 and police brutality has been in use since 1833 when it appeared in the London Paper The Poor Man's Guardian. Efforts to combat police brutality focusing on various aspects of police subculture, and the psychology manifests itself when others have absolute authority over people. Specific suggestions on how to decrease the occurrence of police brutality include police cameras and civilian review boards.
Numerous doctrines such as federalism (federal principle, or a government system.), separation of powers (an act of vesting all powers of government in separate bodies), causation (causing something), deference (humble submission/respect), discretion, and burden of proof (to prove someone's assertions) have been cited for judiciaries' fragmented pursuit of misconduct (misuse of conduct). However, there's also evidence that courts cannot or choose not to see brutality in systematic patterns. Other factors that have been cited encouraging brutality include institutionalized systems of police training, management and culture. It is a criminal-justice system that discourages prosecutors pursuing police misconduct vigorously. A political system that responds readily to police than the residents of inner-city and minority communities. A racist political culture that fears crime and values through policing more than it values all citizens. It is believed it is without social change, the control of police deviance is improbable at its best.
In the passage of the volstead act (act of removing alcohol) in 1919 and had a long term negative impact on policing practices. By the Mid-20s, crime had dramatically increased in demand of illegal alcohol. Many law enforcement agencies stepped up unlawful practices. By the time of the Hoover Administration, the issue had increased to a national danger and a National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement (wicker sham commission) was formed to look into the situation. The resulting "report on lawlessness in law enforcement" in 1931 concluded that the third degree. That is, the use of physical brutality and other forms of cruelty to obtain involuntary confessions and admissions is widespread. In the years of following the report, landmark legal judgements such as Brown v. Mississippi helped concrete a legal obligation to respect due process because of the 14th amendment.
Police brutality can be associated with racial profiling. Difference ethnicity, religion, politics, or socioeconomic status (based on someone's social and economic life) [sometimes] exist between police and citizens. Some police officers may view the population as deserving punishment. Portion of the population may see police as oppressors. In addition there is a perception that victims of police brutality often belong to powerless communities as well as minorities, disabled, and/or the poor. The war model of policing has been offered as a reason for why police brutality occurs. Through this model, it is more likely to happen as police see as war and the people are their enemies. [But as overtime we develop training programs to enhance every policemen to be by the law in which they serve. As the years gone by the training techniques are working much better than 200 years ago.]
Academic theories such as threats hypothesis an the community violence hypothesis have been used to explain brutality. The threat hypothesis implies that "police use force in direct response that perceives threat from social or economic groups viewed as threatening to the existing order.". According to the community violence hypothesis "Police use force in 'direct response' to levels of violence in the community.". [This theory explains that force is used to control groups that threaten the community or police themselves with violence.]
Many policies have been offered on how to prevent police brutality. One solution is body cameras. The theory of using body cameras is that offers will not likely to commit misconduct if they understand that the actions can be recorded. During a case study attempting to test its effects on police actions, researchers found out that police use less force with civilians when in use with body cameras. There are issues though including downloading and maintenance of the data can be expensive. There is also some worry that body cameras will become more relied on court cases, not having video evidence would decrease the likelihood that the court believes the witnesses and the cops.
Civilian review boards have been proposed as another solution to decrease police brutality, by having review boards monitor police work and increasing relationships with the public. Civilian review boards have gotten criticism though that police staffs can weaken the effectiveness of the boards. Some boards do not have the authority to order investigations into police departments, and the officers can lack funding in the effective tool.
"I think the basic philosophies and principles on how to prevent such brutality. Using techniques to prevent such chaos between police and civilians. Treating the community with good behavior can get good respect between the two. We need education on how to make testimony in court when it comes to either body cameras or situations the officers have to face. We need funding to keep the communities safe, to do this we need to make a fundraising company for police officers. And also we need body cameras not only for monitoring but also in court as well. This concludes my possible solutions to police brutality." (Chris Mohn)
The Civil Rights Movement has been a target of numerous incidents of police brutality in its struggle for justice and racial equality, notably during the Birmingham Campaign of 1963 to 1964 and during the Selma to Montgomery Marches of 1965. Media coverage rapidly sparked a national outrage, and public sympathy for the movement grew fast as a result when MLK Jr. criticized police brutality in his speeches. During this time, the Black Panther Party formed in response to police brutality from disproportionately white police departments was perceived as going against the blacks. The conflict between often resulted in violence and the 34 deaths of 34 members of the BPP and 15 police officers.
In the United States, race and accusations of police brutality continue to be closely linked, and the phenomenon has sparked a string of race riots over the years. Especially notable among these incidents was the uprising caused by the arrest and beating of Rodney King on particularly volatile because the brutality had been videotaped by a bystander and widely broadcast afterwards. When the four law enforcement officers charged with assault and other violations were acquitted (to relieve from a charge of fault or crime), and the 1992 Los Angeles Riots broke out.