Chanpreet sidhu


Canada itself is accountable for 9% of the world’s forests. Therefore maintaining and keeping them healthy commits to the global ecosystem health. There are 8 different forest regions across Canada, Boreal, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence, Acadian, Deciduous, Coast, Subalpine, Montane and the Columbia forest region. With a large amount of this resource Canada has been able to export large amounts to other countries. However, sustainably using this resource so that it is still available for future generations is very important. As well as, extracting it in a manner so that there aren’t as many/none at all effects on the environment, biodiversity and climate.

Map of the 8 forest regions across Canada.


There are various different ways to extract trees. Some of these strategies are easier than other but can cause harm to the environment and wildlife. One way is clear cutting, which is when all trees in a particular area are cut down. No seeds are planted in replacement of the trees taken down, this is an issue as it leads to deforestation. Another method is shelter-wood which is equivalent to clear cutting except seeds are replaced in advance to when the matured trees are cut down. Selective cutting is when on a few trees are cut down in an area leaving the remainder, this method is a lot more sustain than clear cutting. Though, an area of improvement is to replace the trees being cut down, like they are for shelter-wood cutting. Certain extraction methods may be easier but they are not necessarily the best ones.

What happens after clear cutting. Selective cutting takes more thought and planning to decide what trees should be cut down.

How the process of extraction commonly works:

1) Wood is extracted ( trees )

2) It is loaded and transported to the different manufactures (example - pulp and paper, solid wood manufactures)

3) At the manufacture it is produced into the material needed to make the final product (example - pulp is required to make paper )

4) Product would get made ( example - pulp would be used to make the paper )

5) Product would get sent to facilities that work with that particular material (example- paper might get sent to places that print newspaper, makes books, etc. )

6) At this point the final product should be ready


The forestry industry has many great benefits for the people living in Canada. Such as economic benefits because the industry is dispersed it allows employment available for everyone living across Canada. As well as, Indigenous participation in the forest sector. Forests play an important role in the lives of many Indigenous people culturally,spiritually and economically.

How Dependent is Canada on This Resource:

How much of the resource is exported by Canada? :

The amount of forestry resources being exported by Canada to other countries has been increasing over the years. Factually 7% of exports in Canada are contributed by the forestry industry. The countries these resources get exported to are United States, Western Europe, China and Japan. In 2015, softwood lumber exports compromised $8.6 billion which was a 3% increase over 2014. Wood panel shipments increased by 18% to $2.68 billion. In 2015, the transports of printing and writing scarcely increased ( only about 1% ) and newsprint dropped by 10% over 2014. The main reason to a lower amount of pulp and paper exports is that the use of technology is increasing and the job that paper stood accountable is being replaced, decreasing its usage.

✱ Did You Know ? : Canada’s forest product exports contributes $17.8 billion in net trade. Forest shipment has increased over 2014 by 6.3% ( rising to $32.7 billion from $30.8 billion ).

Number of Jobs the Forest Industry Employs:

In 2015, the forest industry was held in custody for 201,645 direct jobs.

Number of jobs employed in the forestry industry in BC alone (sector in forestry-employment (FTE's):

Primary Manufacturing - 24, 172 , Forest Management - 14,744 , Secondary Manufacturing 13,043 , Fiber Supply and Wholesale 8,783 , Forest Innovation 1,372 , Silviculture 1,424. Altogether that is 63,538 FTE's.

How much money does the industry contribute to Canada’s GDP?:

There are 3 major forestry sub-sectors. The first one is solid wood production manufacture ( primary - softwood lumber and structural panels, secondary - millwork and engineering wood products ) this sub-sector is liable for about 44% of the forestry industry’s contribution to Canada’s economy. Then there is the pulp and paper manufacturing ( covers a large range of products like newsprint, household tissues, etc. ) this part of the industry is accountable for 33% of the Canadian economy. Lastly, there is forestry and logging which contributes the remainder 36%. In 2013, the forest sector committed $19.8 billion or 1.25% to Canada’s real gross domestic product (GDP). Other countries may supply more than one product but no country receives more net benefit from trade in forest productions than in Canada.


Forestry has a variety great benefits to many Canadians and Canada itself as a whole country. However every good thing usually comes with a negative aspect. The extraction method, clear cutting is leading to deforestation. Deforestation has long term effects on climate, soil, biodiversity and hydrological managements and therefore is a concern of environmental leading activities. Smoke created from burning trees pollutes the atmosphere increasing carbon dioxide levels in the air and furthering the greenhouse effect. Other reasons for deforestation includes burning, land conversion for exploration and infrastructure for gas wells. Forests being cut down for exploration and infrastructure is an issue occurring in Alberta ( also possibly in other places across Canada ) for gas wells, pipeline routing, access to these sites and pumping stations. Forests are a precious resource that supply food, shelter, wildlife habitat, fuel and daily supplies (example - medicinal ingredients and paper).

More planning needs to be done prior to the trees being cut down. A question to take under consideration would be will it be ideal to re-harvest trees in that particular area.


Canada withholds a large portion of the world’s forest and with that comes great responsibility. It is highly demanding to sustainably use the resources the forests have to provide to us so that it can still be used throughout the many generations to come. Forests are very beneficial in the lives of many Canadians because of the jobs it provides but also the resources used in our daily lives. As for Canada as a whole country this industry contributes a large GDP to the Canadian economy. Forests also provide shelter to many animals, oxygen, food and much more. Forests provide an abundant amount of things and it is important to find a way so that they can continue to do that.

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