Canada itself is accountable for 9% of the world’s forests. Therefore maintaining and keeping them healthy commits to the global ecosystem health. There are 8 different forest regions across Canada, Boreal, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence, Acadian, Deciduous, Coast, Subalpine, Montane and the Columbia forest region. With a large amount of this resource Canada has been able to export large amounts to other countries. However, sustainably using this resource so that it is still available for future generations is very important. As well as, extracting it in a manner so that there aren’t as many/none at all effects on the environment, biodiversity and climate.
There are various different ways to extract trees. Some of these strategies are easier than other but can cause harm to the environment and wildlife. One way is clear cutting, which is when all trees in a particular area are cut down. No seeds are planted in replacement of the trees taken down, this is an issue as it leads to deforestation. Another method is shelter-wood which is equivalent to clear cutting except seeds are replaced in advance to when the matured trees are cut down. Selective cutting is when on a few trees are cut down in an area leaving the remainder, this method is a lot more sustain than clear cutting. Though, an area of improvement is to replace the trees being cut down, like they are for shelter-wood cutting. Certain extraction methods may be easier but they are not necessarily the best ones.
How the process of extraction commonly works:
1) Wood is extracted ( trees )
2) It is loaded and transported to the different manufactures (example - pulp and paper, solid wood manufactures)
3) At the manufacture it is produced into the material needed to make the final product (example - pulp is required to make paper )
4) Product would get made ( example - pulp would be used to make the paper )
5) Product would get sent to facilities that work with that particular material (example- paper might get sent to places that print newspaper, makes books, etc. )
6) At this point the final product should be ready
The forestry industry has many great benefits for the people living in Canada. Such as economic benefits because the industry is dispersed it allows employment available for everyone living across Canada. As well as, Indigenous participation in the forest sector. Forests play an important role in the lives of many Indigenous people culturally,spiritually and economically.
How Dependent is Canada on This Resource:
How much of the resource is exported by Canada? :
The amount of forestry resources being exported by Canada to other countries has been increasing over the years. Factually 7% of exports in Canada are contributed by the forestry industry. The countries these resources get exported to are United States, Western Europe, China and Japan. In 2015, softwood lumber exports compromised $8.6 billion which was a 3% increase over 2014. Wood panel shipments increased by 18% to $2.68 billion. In 2015, the transports of printing and writing scarcely increased ( only about 1% ) and newsprint dropped by 10% over 2014. The main reason to a lower amount of pulp and paper exports is that the use of technology is increasing and the job that paper stood accountable is being replaced, decreasing its usage.
Number of Jobs the Forest Industry Employs:
In 2015, the forest industry was held in custody for 201,645 direct jobs.
Number of jobs employed in the forestry industry in BC alone (sector in forestry-employment (FTE's):
Primary Manufacturing - 24, 172 , Forest Management - 14,744 , Secondary Manufacturing 13,043 , Fiber Supply and Wholesale 8,783 , Forest Innovation 1,372 , Silviculture 1,424. Altogether that is 63,538 FTE's.
How much money does the industry contribute to Canada’s GDP?:
There are 3 major forestry sub-sectors. The first one is solid wood production manufacture ( primary - softwood lumber and structural panels, secondary - millwork and engineering wood products ) this sub-sector is liable for about 44% of the forestry industry’s contribution to Canada’s economy. Then there is the pulp and paper manufacturing ( covers a large range of products like newsprint, household tissues, etc. ) this part of the industry is accountable for 33% of the Canadian economy. Lastly, there is forestry and logging which contributes the remainder 36%. In 2013, the forest sector committed $19.8 billion or 1.25% to Canada’s real gross domestic product (GDP). Other countries may supply more than one product but no country receives more net benefit from trade in forest productions than in Canada.