ZIMBABWE Landlocked in Southern Africa

Population: 14.6 millions

The What

Ranked 155 out of 188 underdeveloped countries and territories

  • HDI: 0.509
  • GNI per capita (2011 PPP$): 1,615
  • GDP: $14.19 billion
  • GDP Growth Rate: 3.2%
  • Inflation: 8.5%

Main Industries: Agriculture and Mining

  • Arable land: 10.49%
  • Unemployment rates have reached a high of 95%
  • Labor force: 3.939 million people ; 66% (agriculture), 24% (services), 10% (industries)

Health Expenditures: 6.4% of GDP

  • 57.5% life expectancy at birth
  • The percentage of unimproved sanitation access is at a high 63.2%

Overall HDI Loss Due To Inequality: 27%

  • Inequality in education: 17.4%
  • Inequality in income: 35.8%
Though the living rate has increased significantly from the large dip, it's still at a great level of concern.
All work. no play.

The Why

Tropical and Landlocked

  • no available ports for trade → thus must rely on other countries in order to have access to the seas
  • Terrain: highland plateau; mountains in the east
  • Terrain makes for horrible agricultural development → hight land makes it difficult to grow crops
  • 10.49% available, usable land → and considering agriculture is one of their main industries, it doesn't serve a great deal of income with poor land
  • Current land issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
  • With the heavy pollution (in the air and water), the effects have inevitably lead to health endangerment
  • Climate: tropical ; moderated by altitude ; rainy seasons (November to March)
  • Natural hazards (due to climate): oftenly there are droughts; floods and severe storms are rare

Health, Sanitation, Pollution

  • Since the water and air are both heavily polluted due to lack of proficient sanitation and lack of organization concerning mining practices, illnesses arise due to horrible living conditions
  • Sanitation: (unimproved) 63.2%
  • Degree of risk (of contatracting an infectious disease): high
  • Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  • Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
  • Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
  • Animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Corruption

  • Robert Mugabe (Prime Minister 1980-87; President 1987-present)
  • During his early reign, he was greatly respected for his leadership skills
  • Has held power within Zimbabwe since 1980, never leaving an office position since then
  • But since recently he has often be criticized for ruling more as a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement, corruption, and human rights violation
  • Justified seizure of white-owned farms by gangs (2000)
  • Agriculture production decreased by 150%
  • 75% population now needs food-aid to survive (2009)
  • National treasury bankrupt, high inflation (150%), high unemployment (90+%)
  • Claimed to have committed voter fraud: Reports of widespread fraud in 2002, 2008, 2013 presidential elections
an upstanding against the government ruling in zimbabwe

The How

Regional Intervention

  • Both the regional and international communities responses to these crises in Zimbabwe have proved to be of little service
  • Across the land, Heads of States and governments of other countries and areas have shown contempt for Mugabe's reign and have urged him to step down (which of course hasn't worked)
  • However, while some were against his ruling, others were in favor.
The African Union (AU) did not question Mugabe's right to assume Zimbabwe's seat at the AU summit in Egypt from June 30 to July 1, 2008 and Tanzanian president, Jakaya Kikwete, who chaired the summit, referred to the elections as “historic.”
  • The AU shifted the issue of the post-election violence to the South African Development Community (SADC). The SADC proved to be of little help concerning the crisis, with their strategy showing questionable efforts with "quiet diplomacy, including mediation efforts led by South African President Thabo Mbeki."

International Intervention

  • The UN has been aware of the degrading standards of Zimbabwe, but have failed to undertake any useful measures and services to prevent human rights violations and violence.
  • On January 26, 2009, the President of the European Union extended sanctions on Mugabe and his top aides for failure of providing the economic and social aid needed for his people.
  • On December 10, 2010, The Friends of Zimbabwe (composed of the UN, World Bank, African Development Bank, and several countries including the U.S.) presented a statement showcasing their:
Serious concerns…relating to the protection of fundamental rights, the rule of law, governance and respect for agreements.
  • The Friends of Zimbabwe have also called for the government to take whatever measures need to be done in order to hold free and fair presidential elections.

The Next

First Proposal

  • Remove Mugabe from power. During his time he has shown to be a tyrant and a menace to Zimbabwe. He has hindered the economic and living conditions of his people, and must be taken down. Thus, it would be advised for the regional and international community to lend aid to the Zimbabwe people and further push the impeachment of Mugabe. Take all necessary measures of increasing sanctions on Mugabe and his aides, withdrawing Mugabe's seat in the African Union, and all power possible. If he steps down from presidency, although a gamble it will give the chance for a new leader to come and hopefully fix the mistakes within Zimbabwe.

Second Proposal

  • Clean the pollution. Zimbabwe has degraded significantly due to the impractical mining situation which has lead to air and water pollution, and considering the country's lack of proficient sanitation, the people have been left suffering for their lives under these conditions. The terrain and climate is not something that can be changed, but international assistance were to be provided to help clean the water and air, and show the Zimbabwe people an efficient way to make use of the limited resources they have, it would better the lifestyle significantly.

Third Proposal

  • Education and skill level are undoubtedly low within Zimbabwe. With a majority of the population having nothing higher than a mid-secondary school education (7-10 years of schooling), the people altogether hold minimal knowledge of work forces, how to properly care for a company, how to properly care for themselves, etc. However, Zimbabwe holds a great deal of cheap unskilled labor, in which they could trade with other nations for skilled service and gain the essential knowledge, as well as machinery, needed to progress manufacturing and industries. If they are able to gain the essential knowledge and skills needed to improve their country, Zimbabwe would be on a better path of growth.

Fourth Proposal

  • Sort of a subset of the third proposal, Zimbabwe, considering its horrible health conditions, lack proper immunization and physicians. There is a very limited amount of doctors, and even less of skilled and experienced doctors, and with the amount of diseases sweeping across the country, there is minimal the people can do but fight through it. So, this could be another way the international community could provide even minor services in form of proper medical training and necessary vaccinations, which would significantly improve the health and lifestyle of the people.

Credits:

Created with images by Free Grunge Textures - www.freestock.ca - "Zimbabwe Grunge Flag" • rosshuggett - "untitled image" • Sustainable sanitation - "Some residents and some vendors are fetching water." • Ben Sutherland - "Zimbabwe vigil in London" • rosshuggett - "untitled image"

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