Problems with the term media consumers
- It suggests that the consumer always destroys value and can’t actually ever participate in its creation.
- It is odd when applied to the tech sector, information economies, software and internet users as digital goods are not scarce in any conventional sense, and they are not diminished by the act of “consumption”.
- Some think it’s anti-ecological. “Consumers” sound like ravening beasts who must destroy what they buy instead of renting it from the recycler.
1)What ‘mechanisms of participatory culture’ are they using to encourage ‘civic engagement and political participation’?
2)Pick 2-3 of the items listed under ‘Achievements’ and explain how the ‘mechanisms of participatory culture’ have been used to achieve social change.
- The use of broad cultural messaging to link the Hunger Games with real-life inequality.
- Donations of over 250,000 books across the world through HPA’s Accio Books campaign. 8
the roles of Millennials / Generation Z as consumers versus multipliers
tastemakers (elite) -> media produces
audience -> largely passive then one direction flow NOW -> part produce/part consumer -> co- creators ->multipliers
producers -> Artefact-> Audience
Digital Native: A demographic group comprising individuals who are born or brought up during the age of digital technology and are therefore familiar with computers and the internet from an early age.
Convergence VS Synergy
The Machine is using us
From the shown video, we could learn that the internet could be
The Digital Revolution
Then along came computer technology . . . which brought together the production systems of media organisations.
Books, newspapers & magazines originate on a computer now.
Photographs & illustrations are inserted on a computer
Films are shot on a digital camera and edited on a computer
So media convergence is a result of the digital revolution!
Secondary Research (Desktop Research)
How to use it?
1) Identify the subject domain and where to acquire the information
2) Gather existing data
3) Comparing data from different sources if necessary and if feasible and
4) Analyzing data
The information already exists and is readily available -> quick & low cost
Helps guide the focus of any subsequent primary research being conducted
Secondary research may be the only available source of specific pieces of information (i.e. government data)
The information lacks specificity or does not exactly address question of concern
Some external secondary data may be of suspect quality or outdated
Internal secondary data such as sales reports and customer databases may only describe existing customers
- more complex
- indepth exploration
- one to one talks with active industry players & observers
- focus on prospect companies
- Easier to conduct
- Broad understanding
- obtained from public sources
- focus on markets
- preparation for primary research
- assess easy, low cost and quick knowledge
- clarify the research question
- help align the focus of primary research in a larger scale and can also help to identify the answer
- Rule out potentially irrelevant project proposal (e.g The proposed work may have already been carried out)
A theory composed originally by G. Gerberner and later expanded upon by Gerbner&Gross
They began research in mid 1960s endeavouring to study media effects, specifically whether watching television influences the audience’s idea nd perception
Cultivation theory leads to the mean world syndrome
Cultivation theory states that high frequency viewers of television are more susceptible to media messages and the belief that they are real valid.
Heavy viewers are exposed to more violence (affected by Mean World Syndrome)
- dark colours (place)(through the lighting)
- background music
- blurs out some parts
- filming at night
- film noir
- signify colours like yellow and red
- bridge of lights go out
- black gloves - shows protecting identity
- leather shows violence
Tips in 60 seconds - How to find your audience?
- don’t stereotype
- target audience
- program ideas
- program title
- talent of the show
- put urself in viewers position to see what they will feel
What is the purpose of your research?
Basic Questions to ask:
Is there an audience for your product? (could there be more than one ideas?)
Who are the audience? ( Age, gender, location, ethnicity, religion, interests.... Can you describe them in terms of demographics and psychographics)
What media do they already consume?( What magazines, TV shows, movies, games do they use? What platforms do they prefer, e.g. TV, internet, Playstation, XBox, PC, Mac)
How much time and money are they willing to spend on media product?
What other products already exist which are similar to yours?
Quantitative vs Qualitative Research
- ask specific closed questions
- collects data from participants
- analyzes numbers using statstics
- Conducts the inquiry in unbiased objective manner
- Ask broad, open questions
- collecting data consisting largely of words (text) or image (picture)
- Descriptions and analysis of words for themes
- Conducts inquiry in subjective biased manner
Uses & Gratification Theory
Entertainment and Diversion - taking you away from your own problems and your own world for a while-escapism
Surveillance and information - helping you to get knowledge about the world and how it works
Personal Identity- comparing yourself to characters on TV. (what will you do in that situation?, How would you behave?, Would you be brave?, as foolhardy?
Personal companionship- get involved with characters as if they are real, wanting to find out what happen in their lives also having something to talk to others(did you see that last night....) conversations