World War I By: Fancy Mua and Stephanie Flores-Sanchez
- Causes of World War I:
Entente Cordiale: convinced Great Britain that Germany may soon establish itself as a dominant power on the Continent.
The Moroccan Crises: both crises were provoked by the Germans with an aim to cause tensions between France and Britain that just resulted in an alliance
The Balkan Wars: made Austro-Hungarian statesmen even more determined to take concrete action to prevent further strengthening of Serbia.
The July Ultimatum: On July 23, Austria-Hungary presented an ultimatum to Serbia, a few days later, the Austro-Hungarian troops invaded Serbia and started the devastating World War I.
Imperialism: This contributed to the amount of land that was owned by France and Britain which led to tensions between Germany who sought to gain more land. Tensions rose when the fight for Africa arose in the late 1800's. Imperial rivalry was present around this time to create pre war tensions all throughout Europe.
Nationalism: Evidence of this was found in pages of newspapers filled with inflammatory stories or rumors about rival countries, other forms of popular culture that nationalism was found in Were, literature, theatre, and music. Nationalism gave citizens excessive confidence in their nation which helped tension build up.
Millenarianism: All powers increased their stocks of arms, produced more modern weapons of war and built more strategic railways. Military and naval rivalry led to to the believe that war was actually coming.
- Causes for US entry into war:
Zimmerman Telegram: Telegram sent from Germany to Mexico, asking Mexico to engage war with US if the US declared war on Germany. In return Mexico would get back the territory lost in the Mexican-American war.
Espionage by Central Powers: Black Tom was a sabotage act by German agents to destroy American-made munitions that were to supply the Allies in WWI.
Economic Gain: American businessmen were interested in the Allied victory, many wealthy businessmen helped fund British and French war efforts with approximately $3 billion. So if the US didn't join many wealthy businessmen wouldn't get paid back.
- Profile of an American soldier:
American Doughboy: The term was used for U.S. service members in World War I (1914-18). But most typically it was used to refer to troops deployed to Europe as part of the American Expeditionary Forces. These men were so horrified because most of the soldiers never went far from the farms and towns they were home to.
An Average American Soldier: A United States Soldier Completely Equipped for Service. On his back this American fighting man carries his blanket roll, small shovel, bag, etc. His canteen is at his belt. He is armed with a .30 calibre U. S. Army rifle. Minimum weight for maximum efficiency is the principle upon which his whole outfit has been designed.
- A Battle Summary:
Battle of Verdun: The Battle of Verdun begin February 21st and lasted until December 1916, on the Western Front. The war was between the French and German armies. This battle was one of the largest and longest battles of the First World War. The battle resulted in a French victory. The French lost over 360,000 and the Germans nearly 340,000
Soldiers experience at Verdun: "I have returned with a famous hypocrite to see the life that one leads in Paris. One would never think that there is a war going on: cinemas, concerts, theaters are all full of people who are having fun with abandon. The husband is at the front but it doesn't matter. It's been a long time since he's been away! One forgets him and imagines that he is dead. A broken pane of glass-put another in its place; this is the motto of the women. They are the demimonde, or society people. The shops are over-flowing with fancy stuff. It is disgraceful to see such things." -Letter from a soldier at the Place de Verdun, November 1916.
- Home Front Experiences:
The Home Front saw a massive change in the role of women, rationing, the bombing of parts of Britain by the Germans (the first time civilians were targeted in war), conscientious objectors and strikes by discontented workers. The whole nation was under the jurisdiction of DORA (Defence of the Realm Act).
Women's role: Before World War One began, women often worked as servants and cleaners. Once a woman married she was expected to give up work and to become a housewife. The women's role was to look after the children, cook, and clean. However, when men left to go to war, women had taken the responsibility to take on jobs outside the home. As the war went on, women took on more and more men's jobs.
- Outcomes of World War I:
The Great 4 Powers: United Kingdom, United States, France and Italy eventually won the war in 1918. Both the winning and losing sides of the war had a lot of casualties. The total death toll was over millions soldiers, with people of all nationalities lost their lives fighting for the country they call home.
The Allied troops created a peace treaty with Germany, hoping the hatred between these countries would die down. The Allied troops created a treaty called the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919.
1. The German Army was limited to only 100,000 men of all ranks.
2. No large artillery pieces, tanks or aircraft were allowed for the German military.
3. Limits on German Army Reserves. Men who joined the German Army had to stay in for twelve years and officers had to stay in for twenty-five years. This meant that only a limited number of men in Germany would have military training.
4. No General Staff was allowed. The purpose of a General Staff was to plan for war. This was were Von Schlieffen had developed his plans, therefore, no General Staff equals no war plans, then no war.
5. The German Navy was limited to six cruisers, two old battleships and some smaller ships for port duties.
6. Submarines were completely forbidden. The threat of these weapons during the war caused serious problems for the Allies.
7. The Allies were to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years in an area called the “demilitarized zone.” Germany was to pay for the cost of the Allied troops stationed in this area. This condition was to help limit French fears of fighting on French soil.
8. Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France. This was a sore spot for France because Bismarck had taken the provinces away after the Franco-Prussian War.
9. Parts of Germany that were occupied by Polish people were given to the new country of Poland. This was part of Wilson’s Fourteen Points to create countries made up of ethnic groups, not run by foreign powers.
10. All German overseas colonies were divided up and given to France, England and in the Pacific to Japan.
The Allies declared that Germany was responsible for the war and therefore had to pay reparations (compensation for damages). The total cost was to be calculated as equal to the damages caused by the war to civilian property. A special committee was to be established to set the price for the German government to pay.
Why did the US not sign the Treaty of Versailles: When Wilson brought the treaty back to the United States for ratification, two groups of the US senators opposed some of the treaty's conditions and prevented the senate from acquiring the two-thirds majority vote needed for its passage.