Interwar period Hailey rassel

United States

- Black Tuesday, Oct. 29, 1929: because of speculation, stock market crashed plunging the nation into depression

- Led by Hebert Hoover in the early stages of the depression years, later led by FDR.

-Social Security Act of 1935 provided unemployment and old-aged benefits

-New Deal: a series of reforms in an attempt to drag their country out of the depression

- Women start wearing hair and skirts shorter and start hanging in jazz clubs. The “Flappers”

Germany

-His inspired speeches led his people to believe they could be restored in their pride, power, and world status

-Secretly began to rebuild and rearm the army

-Nazi Party leader Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor & begins the Third R- The Weimar Republic was the federal government establish after the war, however it proved to be weak and ineffective

-Open violation of the Treaty of Versailles when he marched his troops into the Rhineland.

- The Beer Hall Putsch was an attempt to oust the government. The future leader of the country was involved and jailed

- Began Fascist doctrine that appealed to the upper and middle classes

- His “Black Shirts” broke up strikes, intimidated workers, and drove elected socialist from office

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Italy

- His inspired speeches led his people to believe they could be restored in their pride, power, and world status

-Fascist leader known as Benito Mussolini, also known as Il Duce, rises to power

- Symbol of country is Roman axe bundled tightly with rods

- Youth followers, known as “Sons of the Wolf”

- Began Fascist doctrine that appealed to the upper and middle classes

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England

- Outdated factories and “replaced” as industrial leader by Japan and America.

- Ramsay MacDonald, leader of the Labour Party in the political arena

- Easter Rising: revolt against their government in an attempt to gain independence but resulted in executions of many of the

movements leaders

- IRA terrorist group fights for their independence.

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France

- Farmland as well as entire cities of the North lay in ruins as a result of the battles of WWI

- Wartime alliance with Italy comes to an end

- Spent large amount of money to fortify borders with the Maginot Line

- Signed a mutual assistance treaty with Czechoslovakia and Poland

-The Locarno Pact in which a series of treaties state problems will be solved peacefully, and guaranteed existing boundaries

between France and Germany

Soviet Union

- New Economic Plan kept heavy industry, communications, transportation, and credit systems under government control

- The 5-year plan resulted in decreased agricultural output and many starve

-Vladimir Lenin rose to lead the country

-Became a command economy in which government controlled all economic decisions

- ALL religion was discouraged and in many cases banned all together

- The death of Lenin led to a power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Stalin will win the fight

- The “purge” rid the country of party members suspected of being disloyal

- Agriculture grouped to form collective farms and people worked together to bring in the crops using the scarce farm machinery

-Had a five year plan to increase industrial, agricultural output and turn them into modern industrial giant

- Million of citizens were sent to gulags which were brutal labor camps in the barren area known as Siberia

- Said it would end all class division like the teachings of Karl Marx

World involvement

- Some look to science to help support disillusion with the world

- Movies become big entertainment

-Three waves of the influenza pandemic hit

- Many people feel increasingly fearful of the unpredictable world

- People in early post war era live for the moment, not planning on future

- The Locarno Pact in which a series of treaties state problems will be solved peacefully, and guaranteed existing boundaries

between France and Germany ( France Germany England and Italy)

- Aryan racial superiority became an obsession of the state( Germany Soviet Union and Italy)

-No concern for human rights ( Germany Italy and Soviet Union)

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