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Anaerobic Digestion of Abattoir Waste: A Combined Strategy for Biogas and Biofertilizer Production, and Waste Management


Aims: The study was carried out to estimate the biogas and biofertilizer potential of cattle Paunch and assess the waste treatment efficiency of the Anaerobic Digestion process.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria between March and August 2016.

Methodology: We digested paunch from the rumen of one cow anaerobically for 30 days. Biogas production was measured. The digestate compost was used in comparison with Urea to cultivate maize. The plant heights, Plant diameter, average growth rate, number of cobs and weight of cobs were the performance indicators. The results obtained for each parameter were subjected to a Two Way ANOVA at 95% Confidence level using Minitab 14.2 Statistical software. Physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the feedstock and digestate were used as indicators of the treatment efficiency.

Results: 0.61 m3 of biogas was produced over the retention time while the potential biogas production of one mature cow was estimated at 7.43 m3/year. A total of 14.7 kg of digestate compost was obtained and utilized for the maize production. The results of the ANOVA showed that there was significant difference between the treatments for all parameters with a P-value of .000 in each case. Only plant height showed significant different between plots with a P-value of .035. 53.13% percent reduction in Total solids was achieved by the anaerobic digestion process while the reduction in Volatile solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand, E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were 47.12%, 29.10% 86.75% and 91.28% respectively while the overall efficiency was estimated at 63.86%.

Conclusion: Biogas in good quantity and compost was produced via the anaerobic digestion of cattle paunch and the process achieved over 60% waste treatment efficiency.

Keywords :Abattoir waste; biogas; biofertilizer; digestate; waste management; maize yield.

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What Separated the Cuticle from the Avian Egg Shell is Unknown: Could it be the Yellow Maize Broth or Heat?


Aims: Avian egg internal components are sources of nutrients for the developing embryo while the external components especially the cuticle, have physical and biological defence mechanisms to protect the embryo against microbial attack. Consequently, the cuticle could be harvested and used in the production of pharmaceuticals for the treatment and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases as well as feed supplement in human and livestock nutrition. Unfortunately, little is known about the possibility of harvesting and utilizing avian egg cuticle hence, the present serendipitous discovery may serve as a guide to commercial production of avian egg cuticle.

Methodology: Six freshly laid eggs of Black Nera where cooked in an attempt to warm six broken yellow maize cobs and were left in the broth overnight.

Results: It was observed that the cuticles on all the eggs surfaces not submerged in the broth were removed and with gentle rubbing on the surfaces submerged in the broth, more cuticles were harvested. Although, the egg cuticle yield per egg was not determined, it was seemingly indicative that avian egg cuticle could be harvested commercially.

Conclusion: Black Nera egg cuticles could be harvested following cooking of freshly laid eggs left in a broth containing yellow maize overnight. The cooked yellow maize broth was observed to be misty, indicating composition of several substances suspected to be the cause of the egg cuticle’s removal. Although, there are apparent prospects of harvested avian egg cuticle that could be explored, some limitations to its optimal utilization may be contemplated. Hence, research activities geared towards avian egg cuticle nutritional profiles determination, pharmacological trial, composition of cooked yellow maize broth and ways to harvest avian egg cuticles should be painstakingly conducted.

Keywords :Avian egg; Black Nera; harvested cuticle; yellow maize.

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Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine, Catechin, Epicatechin, Chlorogenic and Caffeic Acid in Cola nitida Dried Nuts from Côte d’Ivoire Using HPLC


Aims: A simple high performance liquid chromatographic analysis (HPLC) for Cola nitida caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic and caffeic acid with a gradient system elution system was developed.

Study Design: Mature kola seeds were collected in October 2014-February 2015 in South of Côte d’Ivoire. Harvested kola nuts were transferred to the laboratory until used in the experiments.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during the year 2016 at European institute of membranes, France.

Methodology: Kola nuts was extracted from mature kola seeds (Cola nitida Schott & Endl.) and the extract was obtained by infusion of kola nut powder in water-ethanol mixture at room temperature. The compounds were separated by of a C18 reversed-phase column with a gradient elution system of binary phase consisted of A (95/5, water-H2O/methanol-MeOH + 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-TFA) and B (100% acetonitrile-ACN + 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-TFA) and an UV detector. All of these compounds were separated within 70 min. The validity of this method was confirmed by their quantitative measurement in kola samples.

Results: The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of these compounds were within the range of 0.098 to 0.47 µg/mL and 0.3 to 1.45 µg/mL, respectively. All the analyses exhibited good linearity with correlations coefficients above 0.9974 and the accuracies for the analyses were 97 – 104%.

Conclusion: Using this analytical method, the bioactive compounds of kola nuts have been determined with satisfactory. The presence of these compounds (caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, cholrogenic acid and caffeic acid) in the extract justifies the industrial interest of kola nuts.

Keywords :Cola nitida; kola nuts; caffeine; polyphenol; HPLC; validation.

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Plasmid – mediated Resistance in Salmonella typhi Isolates from Door Handles in Nasarawa State, North-central Nigeria


Contamination of door handles with antibiotic resistant bacteria can be a major threat to public health, as the antibiotic resistant determinants can be transferred to other pathogenic bacteria thus, compromising the treatment of severe bacterial infections. This study investigated the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile of Salmonella typhi isolated from door handles of two tertiary institutions in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. One hundred door handles from each of the two institutions, making 200 in total were sampled and 36(18.00%) S. typhi were isolated. The isolates were 100% resistant to 7 out of the 10 antibiotics tested. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) study on selected multiple antibiotics resistant isolates showed that the isolates were susceptible to the tested antibiotics in the following order: Imipenem = Ciprofloxacin > Ceftazidime > Cefuroxime > Ampicillin > Nitrofurantoin. Fourteen (38.89%) of the multiple antibiotic resistant isolates produced beta lactamase enzymes. Conjugation experiment on the multiple antibiotics resistant S. typhi isolates showed that 7(18.42%) of the test S. typhi isolates transferred resistance plasmid gene to sensitive Proteus mirabilis and the MICs of the recipients increased significantly after conjugation. Plasmid profile of the transconjugants and the donors showed the presence of plasmid of different sizes ranging from 1600 to 2500 base pairs in both donor multiple antibiotics resistant S. typhi and transconjugants P. mirabilis. The transfer of resistant plasmids between bacteria could result in serious epidemics that may be difficult to manage.

Keywords :Salmonella typhi; antibiotics susceptibility; Proteus mirabilis; conjugation experiment; plasmid profile.

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On the Adsorptive Detoxification of Chrome Tan Liquor: Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Mode of Transport


Aim: The aim of this study is to regenerate spent activated carbon (RGAC) for use as adsorbent and to study the kinetics, thermodynamics and mode of transport of removing chromium from chrome tanning effluent (TEff).

Methodology: The chemical regeneration approach was adopted in the recycling. Regenerated adsorbent was characterized using FTIR, SEM and classical methods. A batch adsorption experiment was carefully followed to de-chrome the chrome tan effluent. Equilibrium phase chromium was quantified with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Adsorption phenomena were investigated with Kinetic, thermodynamic and transport (diffusion) models to study the behavior of Cr uptake. Kinetic models viz; First order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and Bhattacharya-Venkobachor kinetic models were subjected to three model applicability tests. Thermodynamic parameters which include changes in free energy (ΔG), entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) were monitored in standard states. Prediction of applicable diffusion model was based on comparing linearity of film diffusion, intra-particle diffusion and intraparticulate diffusivity models.

Results: Highlights from this study unveiled the influential roles of parametric factors (Initial effluent concentration on vol./vol. bases, solution pH, particle size, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature). R2 values for models considered showed good fit except for the Bhattacharya-Venkobachor kinetic model. The rate law of the adsorption kinetics is best explained using the Pseudo-second order kinetic model. The chromium adsorption efficiency using both Commercial and regenerated GAC are in good agreement at 95% confidence interval. The regenerant-chromium mode of diffusion, as predicted by the “best-fit’’ transport models, was not suitable for use in the intraparticle diffusion mode (with least R2 and high transport rate) as it does for the film diffusion. In addition, thermodynamic parameters of sorption have also been determined in favour of spontaneity and chemisorptions mechanism.

Conclusion: An overall from this study is the recommendation of regenerated adsorbent as a sure economically viable substitute to the commercial activated carbon for chrome tan effluent de-chroming. This generalization was based on statistical test of significance which reports good agreement between the two adsorbents for the investigated adsorption phenomena.

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Effects of Acacia albida and Crotalaria retusa on the Growth and Development of Tomato


Tomato fruits play an important role in human nutrition because of their high content in health-promoting substances. However, the cultivation of the crop requires substantial chemical (fertilizers and pesticides), which can impair the nutritional value of fruits produced and harm the environment. This study aimed at using biological material to improve the tomato cultivation system. Tomato seedlings were transplanted in perforated polythene bags containing a soil enriched with powder or extraction residues from leaves of Acacia albida and Crotalaria retusa. Aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform or hexane extracts from leaves of Acacia albida and Crotalaria retusa were sprayed on aerial parts of tomato plants. Of a total of twelve parameters measured, eight parameters were significantly improved after treatments with aqueous or chloroform extracts from A. albida leaves, six after soil enrichment with the powder of A. albida leaves, four after foliar sprays of ethyl acetate extract from C. retusa leaves, three after soil amendment with powder or extraction residues from leaves of C. retusa or extraction residues from A. albida leaves, two after the application as sprays of hexane extract from A. albida leaves, and one after treatments with hexane extract or powder from leaves of C. retusa. However, foliar sprays of the aqueous extract from leaves of A. albida had the most efficacious effects, leading to increases in the number of fruits per raceme, number of fruits per plant, number of racemes per plant, root biomass, shoot biomass, fruit biomass and total biomass, respectively, by 2.3 (38.98%), 35.1 (92.61%), 2.5 (39.06%), 6.1 g (50%), 74 g (29.75%), 300 g (42.85%) and 300 g (30%). These treatments also induced a decrease in the rate of flower abortion in tomato plants by 6.3 (25.09%). Foliar sprays of aqueous extracts from leaves of A. albida could be integrated into the tomato agricultural practice in order to reduce the quantity of chemical inputs usually required.

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Effect of Malting & Fermentation on the Functional & Rheological Properties of Sorghum Flour


Sorghum is widely grown in India, Maharashtra is the leading state in its production. Sorghum is popular for poor man’s food. Sorghum-based product is composed of high nutritional value and acceptability. Although Sorghum has a number of benefits viz., it provides a high amount of carbohydrates, rather than it contains phenolic compounds and antioxidants which helps in managing diabetes, heart health, improves digestive health, beneficial in maintaining healthy bones and reduces the risk of cancer. Malting and fermentation are the two most important term which gets a huge impact on the rheological and functional behaviour of the sorghum flour. Malting and fermentation placed a good impact on the sorghum flour. Effect of this malting and fermentation varies with the various varieties of sorghum as they composed of different characteristics.

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Association of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) with Food Security and Nutrition Status among Persons Living with HIV


Aims: Nutritional status can be compromised by food insecurity which is common among HIV infected persons. Providing food assistance is expected to improve food insecurity and nutritional status among persons infected with HIV. This study aimed at examining the relationship of participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the largest food assistance program in the United States, with food security and nutritional status among HIV infected adults.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Miami, FL, USA, between April 2011 and August 2012.

Methodology: We included 159 HIV infected individuals in this study, 113 participants were SNAP recipients while 46 were not. All study participants were, however, eligible to participate in SNAP. Each participant completed demographic and food security surveys as well as dietary and nutrition status assessment. Statistical analyses were conducted using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: More than half (56%) of the sample experienced food insecurity and had inadequate intakes of several nutrients. There were no significant differences in food security level and nutritional status between SNAP participants and eligible non-participants, even after controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Individuals with very low food security had 4.7 times increased odds (95% CI: 1.29-17.38) of illicit drugs use, which was prevalent (38%) among HIV+ SNAP participants in Miami. Drug users were more than twice likely to have inadequate intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and zinc, compared to non-drug users.

Conclusion: Our results do not support an association between SNAP participation and food security or nutritional status in this cohort of HIV infected individuals with prevalent substance abuse. However, it demonstrates that food insecurity and inadequate nutrient intake continues to be prevalent among HIV infected adults and it is related to drug abuse. Resources need to be identified and targeted at addressing both food insecurity and poor nutritional outcomes among populations of HIV infected adults.

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AYA and HANA: New Seedless Mandarin’s Triploid Hybrids Selected in Morocco


Seedlessness is a major objective in Morocco Citrus improvement programmes. Triploidy has played an important role in the development of new seedless mandarin cultivars for fresh fruit market and has received increasing attention for the consumers. For that, many series of diploid crosses were assessed. At maturity, the fruits have been harvested, and small embryos were extracted from undeveloped seed and cultured on the medium of Murashig and Skoog supplemented with 1mg/l gibberellic acid according. Triploids seedling selected by flow cytometry analysis were budded on Troyer citrange and planted in INRA domain with spacing 6 m X 3 m. Tow new seedless selections of mandarins have been evaluated in a citrus breeding program at Morocco INRA: Hana and Aya that were compared with their female parent clementine Sidi Aissa. These promising seedless mandarins were identified by easy-peeling, juicy fruits, have a pleasant taste and are sweet like the Sidi Aissa Clementine. These clones, showing commercial interest, were described and registered in Moroccan official catalogue.

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Microbiological Examination and Physicochemical Analysis of Estuary Water Used as a Point of Source Drinking Water


Introduction: Access to potable water is a fundamental human right. However, this is hardly the case in the rural areas of oil producing communities of the Niger Delta.

Aim of Study: The primary aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of estuary water used as potable water.

Method: Estuary water samples were collected from Eastern Obolo community in Akwa Ibom State, Niger Delta, Nigeria and analysed for physiochemical using standard techniques, and microbiological parameters using standard cultural and metagenomics techniques. Replicate data from microbiological and physicochemical analyses were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while bioinformatic analyses were done using Vecton NTI suite 9 (InforMax, Inc.), NCBI-BLAST-2.2.24 and CLC bio Genomics workbench v7.5.1.

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The Case Report of the Pulmonary Larval Paragonimiasis with Simulating Cancer of the Lung


Larval Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the larvae of the pulmonary fluke. In contrast to the classical Paragonimiasis, larval occurs with a large number of clinical manifestations. However, this fact only complicates the diagnosis of larval Paragonimiasis, as the abundance of clinical manifestations leads to false diagnosis of other diseases. Another distinguishing feature of this form of Paragonimiasis is the propensity to generalization and to imitation of a clinical picture of malignant neoplasms. A 66-year-old patient was infected with a larval form of Paragonimiasis, with invaded lung, pleura, heart, liver, right kidney, spleen, stomach and small omentum. Diagnostic measures performed could not give an accurate idea of ​​the nature of the disease, so a diagnostic thoracoscopy was performed and urgent biopsy from region of dissemination was taken, which showed a glandular cancer of the lower lobe of the lung. This circumstance became the reason for performing atypical resection of the affected part, which was done, but on the second day of the postoperative period the patient died as a result of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The cause of the disease is chronic pulmonary generalized Paragonimiasis (cyst and pneumosclerotic stages) with neoplastic syndrome.

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Association of Soil Parameters with Various Age Classes of Forests of Mukundpur, Satna, Forest Division, Madhya Pradesh, India


Aims: This forest area was susceptible to illicit felling, encroachment and illicit mining. From this problem the forests are changing from stocked - under stocked - blank forests. The majority of the area are blank and under stocked category. To re-vegetate the blank and under stocked area into stocked forests, the soil parameters in the study area were needed to be studied in detail. In the present study the associations of soil parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, availability of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) and micro nutrients like (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) with various age classes of forests were analyzed.

Study Design: Stratified systematic random sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Study area was the forest area of 111.55 km2 of Mukundpur range of Satna Forest division, Madhya Pradesh, India. Field work was carried out during October 2015 to January 2016.

Methodology: The vegetation sampling had been done to assess the forest resource survey. Stratified systematic random sampling method was used for sampling the vegetation. The minimum numbers of sample points were calculated using statistical formula. The 151 sample points at 30”x 30” were selected on safer side with the help of GPS. Half kg of soil sample was collected from central quadrat from the depth of 30 cm from the sample point and air-dried under shade. These samples were sent to soil testing lab Rewa to assess the soil parameters pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, available P2O5, available K2O and micronutrient analysis for availability of zinc, iron, manganese and copper. The Microsoft access program was developed to evaluate the above soil parameters in various age classes of forests. Age classes of forest are defined as, Mature: where average girth of forest trees is more than 120 cm, Middle age: where the average girth of trees of a particular forest stands between 61-120 cm, Young age: where average girth of trees of particular stand is below 60 cm.

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A Study on Knowledge and Adoption Level of Improved Animal Husbandry Practices by Farm Women of Haryana


The study was conducted in kurukshetra district of Haryana to assess the extent of knowledge and adoption level of farm women for improved animal husbandry practices. Four villages were selected at random from randomly selected two blocks of kurukshetra district and finally 160 respondents selected purposively for the study. Thirty five practices of improved animal husbandry were subdivided into seven major aspects of animal husbandry viz., housing, feeding, pregnant & calf management, breeding management, health management, milking management and marketing. Semi structured interview schedule was used to collect the data, using personal interview. Majority of the respondents had higher knowledge about breeding management with mean knowledge score (4.88) followed by milking management (4.71), health management (4.66), pregnant animal and calf management (4.13) and housing (3.51). Medium level of knowledge of women was found in case of feeding (3.0). The poor knowledge of respondents among all the practices was found about marketing (1.54). In case of adoption the higher adoption mean score was found in health management (4.79) followed by breeding management (4.66), milking management (4.24), pregnant animal and calf management (4.12). Medium level of adoption was reported in case of feeding and low adoption in marketing practices. The age of the respondents was positively correlated with women knowledge in animal husbandry while age and farm assets were negatively correlated with adoption of animal husbandry practices by women.

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Role of Ethrel, Polythene Bags and KMnO4 on Storage Life of Banana cv. Grand Naine


Banana is an important fruit crop with high productivity. “GRAND NAINE’ variety of banana has been popularized because of high yield potential with quality fruits. Post harvest life of banana fruit is short for its perishable and climacteric nature. Various physico-chemical changes occur during ripening. A research study was carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, Khalsa College, Amritsar during 2016-2017 to study the effect of ethrel, polythene bags and KMnO4 on storage life of banana cv. Grand Naine. The experiment comprised of seven postharvest treatments viz., ethrel 300 ppm, ethrel 400 ppm, ethrel 600 ppm, perforated polythene bags, unperforated polythene bags, unperforated polythene bags with KMnO4 and control. Results revealed that Among all the treatments, KMnO4 treated banana showed minimum (2.3%) total weight loss at 8th day of storage. The highest fruit color (7), pulp to peel ratio (2.41%), fruit taste (9.10), moisture content in pulp (76.60%), total soluble solids (21.97%), total sugars (18.09%) and reducing sugars (12.10%) were observed in the treatment of ethrel 600 ppm.

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The Challenges of New Product Development in a Developing Economy


New Product Development (NPD) involves creating a new product from concept to the market. The product could be entirely new or rebranding. It is a critical focus of any production firm. The increase in volume of new competitive products is an indicator of any fast growing production concern. However the challenges that could affect development of a new product in a developing economy include, but not limited to the following: Inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of funding, low technological skill, lead time for product development, poor marketing strategies and post product evaluation. There are few studies dedicated to New Product Development (NPD) in this hypercompetitive de-regulated industry today, hence the need to study the probable challenges to be encountered in developing new product becomes necessary. Profit and value added oriented industries have structured organization that facilitates new product development. Such products are developed to satisfy customers’ needs at a time. One critical factor that could be used to assess the acceptability of any new product in the market is the post market performance analysis. However the magnitude of this analysis is not isolated from those challenges peculiar to New Product Development. This study highlights method and stages that project managers require to develop quality new products with challenging time-to-market goals.

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The investigation was aimed to electrodeposit chromium on mild steel surface from non-toxic trivalent chromium bath instead of toxic hexavalent chromium employed for this purpose. We observed the effect of pH, temperature, current density (C.E.) and also time on to the current efficiency. On the other hand we also observed the effect of the concentration of CrCl3 on the plating thickness and optical reflectivity. The optimum pH value and bath temperature are 3 and 40°C respectively to obtain highest current efficiency. On the other hand, 90 min deposition time was the best for high current efficiency. We also achieved good current efficiency at 20 A/dcm2 current density. But the plating thickness was increased with increasing the CrCl3 concentration in the electrolyte. In case of optical reflectivity, the result is totally opposite. Our findings will contribute to develop the products of plating industries.

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Response of Cotton and Soybean Intercropping System to Integrated Nutrient Management


Aims: Field experiment was conducted to study the integrated nutrient management on yield, all yield components and resource use efficiency of cotton and soybean intercropping system.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with three replications and twenty treatments.

Place and Duration of Study: Plot number ‘101’ of ‘D’ block, All India Coordinated Research Project, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka (India) during June 2016.

Methodology: As per the treatments, organic manure (FYM) and green leaf manures (gliricidia and pongamia) were applied 15 days before sowing of the crop. Vermicompost was applied on the spot to soil before dibbling of seeds in cotton and soybean intercropping system in 1:2 row proportions, soybean introduced as intercrop in cotton with row spacing of cotton 120 cm and soybean 30 cm.

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Histological Studies on Heteracris littoralis (Rambur) Treated with Silica Nano-particles / Challenger Formulation


Aim: Local diatomaceous earth (Silica nano-particles) and commercial pesticide (Challenger 36% SC) formulation was tested against alfalfa grasshopper, Heteracris littoralis (Rambur, 1838) (Orthopetra: Acrididae) under laboratory conditions.

Study Design: Histological study for alimentary tract using light microscope.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pests and Plant Protection, National Research Centre, Egypt- 2016-2017.

Methodology: Fourth instar nymphs of H. littoralis were taken from laboratory culture reared on semi-artificial diet [1] for the experiments. The nymphs were fed on diet mixed with 1% concentration of Silica nano-particles/Challenger formulation. The tissue specimens of the alimentary canal were dissected in 0.9% NaCl solution and fixed in Bouin's solution for 24 hours [2] then dehydrated in ascending alcoholic series and cleared in Xylen for few seconds, and then specimens were infiltrated in three changes of paraffin wax each lasted 20 minutes. With Ehrlich's acid haematoxylin and alcoholic eosin. The stained sections were dehydrated, cleared and mounted using D.P.X. For microscope examination.

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Analytical Approach to Critical Diameters in Raindrop Size Distribution in Durban, South Africa


Adequate information of the raindrop size distribution is very significant for the prediction and evaluation of attenuation signal due to rain. In this study, an analytical approach is adopted to determine the peak diameter Dp where the specific rain attenuation is maxima in Durban (29º52'S, 30º58'E), South Africa; using the spherical raindrop shape at temperature T = 20ºC. The overall rainfall attenuation is computed by integrating over all the drop sizes and determine the differential change in the attenuation as observed over a fixed diameter interval, dDi (= 0.1 mm). The critical diameters are the range of diameters where the rain attenuation is highly predominant, which constitutes the surface area under the curve and along the abscissa regions. The critical diameters are seen to coalesce around the peak diameter, at which the maximum attenuation occurs. The maximum specific rain attenuation peaks at the diameter Dp= exp[σ2 (α-1)+μ] (mm) It was observed that the peak diameter is frequency dependent while the parameters, µ, the mean and σ the standard deviation which determines the width of the distribution are found to be region-dependent. The peak attenuation for the stratiform rainfall type varies between 0.8 ≤ D ≤ 1.5 mm whereas for the convective rainfall, the specific rain attenuation peaks between 1.4 ≤ D ≤ 2.7 mm at all frequencies. A proper knowledge of the rainfall attenuation characteristics is useful for proper planning and for the purpose of link budget analysis by operators in this particular region.

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Women’s Perception on Community Based Development Organization Activities in Imo State, Nigeria


Women’s community based organization serves as the apex organization for rural development and their perception in the activities involved should not be overlooked. This is because perception precedes action. The study assessed women’s perception on Community Based Development Organization activities in Imo State, Nigeria. These women organizations were purposively selected from 10 communities with developmental projects. Random sampling procedure was adopted to select 120 members of the organization, thus 12 respondents from each community. Primary data were collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages and mean scores. The result on personal/socio-economic characteristics revealed that a good proportion of the respondents fall within the age bracket of 31-50 (58%), married (75%) with household size of 1-5 (66.7%). Also 66% of the respondents had a secondary and tertiary education while the majority were farmers and traders/artisans (80%) with a minimum income of N10, 000 – 200,000 per month. The result also revealed that the respondents were involved in all the developmental activities listed. The major activities include: attending meetings (100%), mobilization of funds (100%), contribution of time/labour (83.3%), actual execution of projects (83.3%), awareness creation (75%), environmental sanitation (66.7%) and healthcare provision (66.7%) respectively. The respondents’ perception on community-based development activities involved showed high and positive perception (M = 3.2) while rural development in the community ranked 1st, non-recognition of women as partners in development by government, feeling of joy and satisfaction in involvement and no compensation from the government ranked 2nd and 3rd respectively. The study therefore, recommends that the government should identify and recognize the efforts of the women organization as supportive to rural development and try to compensate through awards/training. The women organization should organize to get assistance from national and international agencies as well as consult with governmental development agencies.

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Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Fatty Acid Contents and Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Hedysarum aucheri


In vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities along with total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, hexane, dichloromethane, butanol, and aqueous extracts and chemical composition and fatty acids of n-hexane extract from endemic Hedysarum aucheri were determined. The fatty acid content of the n-hexane extract was determined by GC-MS analysis. Twenty-four out of 39 compounds identified as fatty acid methyl esters constitute 84.20% of hexane extract content. Five of 6 major components were fatty acids, namely alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (32.37%), palmitic acid (24.69%), linoleic acid (LA) (9.16%), stearic acid (7.11%), Arachidic acid (3.14%), and the other one was an acyclic diterpene alcohol called phytol (12.01%). Butanol extract was found to be the richest in flavonoid (66.3 ±1.3 mg QU/g DW) and phenolic (122.4±1.6 mg GAE/g DW) compounds. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by Cupric-ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ABTS radical scavenging capacity. Butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity indicating a strong correlation between flavonoid/phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Also, cytotoxic activities of the extracts were evaluated against a panel of cancer cells (PC3, HeLa, CaCo-2, U-87MG, A549, and MCF-7) and normal cell line HEK293. Dichloromethane extract (DCM) exhibited exceptionally high tumor selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells with IC50 values varying between 0.64 and 24 µg/mL while not impairing the normal cells. DCM extract was found to possess higher cytotoxic activity towards the tested cancer cells than some anticancer drugs reported in the literature. Also, antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined by agar disc diffusion and the micro-dilution methods against a series of microorganisms and hexane extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We hereby report both the pharmaceutical potential of H. aucheri concerning its various biological activities and the phytochemical composition regarding its total flavonoid, phenolic, and fatty acid content.

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Probabilistic Estimation of Potential Gas Reserves for the Emerging Nigerian Gas Market


Proved reserves for the Emerging Nigerian Gas Market is estimated to be around 186 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). In the short to medium term, only 54% or approximately 100 Tcf will be available for utilisation, the remaining locked up as Gas Cap Gas, only available on the long term (constrained by OPEC production quota and lack of Gas Utilisation Infrastructure). The objective of this study was to estimate the growth potential of Associated Gas (AG) reserves and more importantly determine probabilistic estimates for potential reserves additions from the extensive Non-associated Gas (NAG) accumulations in the Niger Delta.

The Niger Delta potential AG reserves growth (deterministic) was investigated using historical reserves figures and the probabilistic potential reserves additions from NAG were explored using simple triangular distributions. The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Reserves classification framework was employed to categorize the Proved reserves (1P or P1) as AG Reserves and Reserves additions from NAG as P2 for Probable reserves (2P or P1+P2) generated as a cumulative distribution till 2050.

The results obtained indicated NAG reserves addition to the proved reserves has a 90% confidence limit of reaching between 78.39 and 89.80 Tcf, and a Standard deviation of 3.42 Tcf in 2050. The 2P reserves estimate in 2050 is expected to lie between 267.06 Tcf and 278.49 Tcf within a confidence interval of 90%. Standard deviation from these values was also estimated as 3.42 Tcf. About total reserves of 275 Tcf would lie below the 75th percentile.

The distribution of reserves obtained would significantly improve future gas reserves availability estimates and plausible production profiles for prospective investors planning to participate in gas to power and other gas utilisation projects in the emerging Nigerian gas market.

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Analysis of National Health Insurance Holders Choice of a Preferred Primary Healthcare Provider in Ho Municipality, Ghana


This paper examines factors National Health Insurance holders consider in selecting their primary healthcare providers in Ho Municipality. The general purpose of the study is to bring to light the leading factors that influence a patient’s choice of a healthcare provider, specifically, the study assesses the distribution of insurance holder’s selection of healthcare providers, examines insurance holder’s choice of a healthcare provider across age line, determines salient factors that influence choice of a healthcare provider and investigates gender perception on indicator variables that influence choice of a healthcare provider. The research used cross-sectional design and multi-stage sampling technique to collect data on 400 sampled NHIS insurance holders with age 18 years and above. Preliminary analysis was used to explore the demographic characteristics of the study unit, Man Whitney U test was used to compare gender views on indicator variables while chi –square test and factor analysis were used to compare choice of a healthcare provider across age group and salient factors that insurance holders consider in selecting their primary healthcare providers respectively. Results from the study indicate that majority of the insurance holders select or will select Municipal hospital as their primary care provider, and thus 70.5% of the time appreciates the introduction of the capitation policy. The study revealed four factors that insurance holders consider in selecting their primary care providers as; hospital service delivery, customer care and prestige, distance and family and peer influence factors. The study further shows that an insurance holders’ choice of primary care provider is dependent on age. In order for healthcare providers to provide quality healthcare, it is suggested that NHIS should ensure timely discharge of funds whiles Ghana Health Service also should consider providing more medical equipment and manpower to healthcare provider’s especially in the Municipal hospital since it seems to be the preference for patients thus the largest patient base.

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Modeling andSimulation of High Blocking Voltage in 4H Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistors


For a given breakdown voltage, the drift region thickness and doping concentration of punch-through structure can be optimized to give the lowest specific on-resistance. An optimization scheme performed for a breakdown voltage of 14 kV in 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT) at 300 K. The optimum drift region thickness and doping concentration for a 4H-SiC punch-through structure at different breakdown voltages are presented. The optimum drift region thickness and doping concentration are 114 μm and 6.6Χ1014cm-3 , respectively, which results in the lowest specific on-resistance of 117 mΩcm2. The specific on-resistance is compared with the theoretical specific on-resistance of non punch-through structure. It is shown that the optimized punch-through structure not only has a thinner drift region, but also has a slightly lower specific on-resistance than non punch-through structure. The model is applied and compared to a measured 4H-SiC bipolar transistors with high blocking voltage and results are discussed. The experimental 4H-SiC BJT is able to block 1631 V at 300 K and 2033 V at 523 K, respectively and when the base is open. The simulated blocking voltage when base is open is slightly lower (1600 V at 300 K) than the experimental value due to the current-amplifying properties of the common-emitter BJT.

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