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New bone marrow Research

Research 1

Bone Marrow Transplantation to Cure Sickle Cell Disease using the Diffusion of Innovation Theoretical Model

This project outlined use of the diffusion of innovations model to disseminate bone marrow transplantation technology for the cure of sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies. Besides, we Identified technologically developed nations that have the relevant medical workforce and infrastructures for BMT. Also discussed, is the necessity of equipping transplant facilities with the construction of the CLEAN ROOM with the state- of- the science resources to protect SCD patients from nosocomial infections. To save human lives and avoid unnecessary casualties, the medical team must protect their patients from hospital acquired infections (HAI), nosocomial and iatrogenic diseases during administration of transplant innovative device. Medical institutions must maintain continuity in sustainable, scientific workforce development. Finally, we explored the ethical, legal, social, and financial implications of adopting Bone Marrow Transplantation medical innovations to cure sickle cell anemia.

Research 2

Cell-Based Therapies in Musculoskeletal Injuries: The Evolving Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Aims: There is considerable interest in the potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in the management of musculoskeletal injuries. This review aims to summarise the information in the literature on the evolving role of these cells in the management of these complex heterogenous injuries.

Study design: Review Article.

Place and Duration of Study: University College London Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, United Kingdom.

Methodology: We reviewed the literature to identify studies on the use of BM-MSCs for the management of musculoskeletal injuries.

Results: There is an increasing and encouraging body of evidence to suggest that BM-MSCs have a significant role in the management of musculoskeletal injuries involving muscles, tendons, ligaments, bone, cartilage, menisci and nervous tissue.

Conclusion: Several characteristics of BM-MSCs make them ideal candidates in managing musculoskeletal injuries. Bone marrow is easy to obtain requiring minimal donor site morbidity, invasiveness and anaesthetic. Their autologous nature eliminates the issue of immunoreactions and ethical problems. The majority of studies in the literature however use small animal models, and further work in larger animals and ultimately ethically approved clinical trials should be explored before any significant clinical relevance can be assessed.

Research 3

Bone Marrow Changes Induced by Guiera Senegalensis in Acetic Acid-induced Colitis in Wistar Rats

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) which are defined as chronic and relapsing inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract caused by variable pathophysiological mechanisms. Synthetic chemical moieties with antioxidant potential are the present treatment regimens, but their high relapse rate and toxicities limit their utility in treatment.

Aims: The aim of this work was to investigate the possible toxic effects that the aqueous extract of Guiera senegalensis will elicit on the bone marrow of experimental animals.

Methods: Experimental colitis was induced in animals using acetic acid to mimic human IBD. The effects of oral administration of the extract on the bone marrow were assessed using appropriate tools. A control, colitis control and a treatment control (prednisolone) were used as a guide in the assessment of the findings in this study.

Results: Animals receiving the extract showed essentially normal erythroid nests and granulocytic precursors as well as several lymphocytes. Animals receiving prednisolone, on the other hand, showed predominantly granulocytic progenitors with an overall decrease in cellularity of the bone marrow. No toxic effect was observed in bone marrow of animals receiving the extract.

Conclusion: The G. senegalensis extract showed no toxicity to the bone marrow and may elicit immunomodulatory properties.

Research 4

A Pilot, Randomized Sham Control Trial of Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mononuclear Cells in Acute Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

In this pilot, sham controlled randomized control trial (RCT) in patients with ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), we studied the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injection of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells and found that both patients who received stem cell injections did not develop anterior segment neovascularization at 1 year follow up. Except for some sterile inflammatory reaction in the initial follow up, no long term injection related serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed. Based on our observations we recommend a larger, multicentric study to further establish the safety and efficacy of this treatment in patients with ischemic CRVO.

Purpose: To study the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells injected intravitreally in patients with ischemic CRVO.

Study Design: Randomized sham controlled trial.

Methods: 4 cases with ischemic CRVO were recruited into the study. 2 cases were randomized into intervention group and 2 into control group. Baseline investigations included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intra ocular pressure (IOP), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), gonioscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients in the intervention group received intravitreal injection of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and those in control group received sham injection. Patients were followed up over a 12-month period.

Main Outcome Measures: Development of anterior segment neovascularization.

Results: Both patients in the intervention group did not develop anterior segment neovascularization over a follow up period of 12 months. 1 patient in control group developed neovascularization of iris and elevated intra ocular pressure over a follow up period of 6 weeks and required trabeculectomy for control of IOP. The other patient in control group was lost follow up after 2 weeks.

Conclusions: Our initial observations suggest that intravitreal injection of mononuclear cells may reduce the risk of developing anterior segment neovascularization in patients with ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. A larger, multicentric study would be valuable to gain further evidence to our preliminary observations.

Research 5

Human Bone Marrow Subpopulations Sustain Human Islet Function and Viability In vitro

Aims: Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) has been shown to support human islet survival and function in long-term culture by initiating human islet vascularization and β-cell regeneration. Various BM subpopulations may play different roles in human islet functions and survival. In this paper we investigated the effects of BM and its subpopulations, endothelial progenitor cells (E) and mesenchymal (M) cells on human islet’s β-cell function and regeneration.

Study Design: Isolation and identification of subpopulations from human bone marrow and culture with allogeneic human islet to investigate effects of different cell population on human islet function and regeneration.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Center for Stem Cell & Diabetes Research, RWMC, Providence, RI, USA, between 2010 - 2014.

Methodology: Human islets were distributed from Integrated Islet Distribution Program (IIDP) and human bone marrow (BM) was harvested by Bone marrow transplantation center at Roger Williams Hospital. BM subpopulation was identified cell surface markers through Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, applied in flow cytometry (FACS), islet function was evaluated by human ELISA kit and β cell regeneration was evaluated by three methods of Cre-Loxp cell tracing, β cell sorting and RT-PCR for gene expression.

Results: Four different BM and seven different islet donates contributed human tissues. We observed islet β-cell having self regeneration capability in short term culture (3~5 days) using a Cre-Loxp cell tracing. BM and its subtype E, M have similar benefits on β cell function during co-culture with human islet comparison to islet only. However, only whole BM enables to sustain the capability of islet β-cell self regeneration resulting in increasing β cell population while single E and M individual do not significantly affect on that. Mechanism approach to explore β-cell self regeneration by evaluating transcription factor expressions, we found that BM significantly increases the activations of β-cell regeneration relative transcription factors, the LIM homeodomain protein (Isl1), homologue to zebrafish somite MAF1 (MAFa), the NK-homeodomain factor 6.1 (NKX6.1), the paired box family factors 6 (PAX6), insulin promoter factor 1 (IPF1) and kinesin family member 4A (KIF4a).

Conclusion: These results suggest that BM and its derived M and E cells enable to support human islet β-cell function. However, only BM can sustain the capability of β-cell self regeneration through initiating β-cell transcriptional factors but not individual E and M cells suggesting pure E and M cells less supportive for islet long-term survival in vitro.

Latest Research in Drug discovery

Research No-1

Natural Products as Potential Sources of Antidiabetic Drugs

Natural products have played and continue to play an invaluable role in the treatment of various diseases and in drug discovery processes. It has remained a source of new compounds with diversified structural arrangements possessing interesting biological activities for various disease treatments. Drugs from natural products are usually considered to be safer, cheaper, easily available and sometimes more efficacious than purely synthetic ones. In recent years, scientists have been in search for safer and more potent drugs from natural sources particularly from medicinal plants. Diabetes is one of the chronic disorders which are associated with high mortality risk. The existing drugs have been identified with one or more adverse effects. In the present review, literature was surveyed to highlight the merits of natural products with regard to their role in diabetic management. Notwithstanding the seemingly decline in the natural product approach to drug discovery in favor of modern approaches such as combinatorial chemistry, literature survey has shown that a lot of research effort is still being directed to natural product in search for new antidiabetic agents. Several antidiabetic phytoconstituents have been isolated from medicinal plants and these were of chemically diversified nature which includes flavonoids, glycosides, terpens, polysaccharides and polypeptides. Based on the merits of nature based medicines, the authors advocate the use of standardized crude forms of some of the natural drugs. Further researches geared towards exploiting the vast array of natural products in our environment and development of the isolated compounds to clinically useful drugs for diabetes management is advocated.

Research No-2

Prevention and Control of Chagas Disease – An Overview

Chagas disease is the main cause of heart failure and sudden death in the Western Hemisphere. The literature of the last decades reported on the changing epidemiological profiles of Chagas disease, which now threats the human population in the cities. The exodus of the Latin America people to the Northern Hemisphere explains the growing concern in countries where the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi was accidental or transferred from a mother to her offspring. Herein, we present the evidence of the possible acquisition of the T. cruzi infection by sex. The staggering demonstration of the transmission of the T. cruzi infections from males and females to naïve mates by intercourse introduces substantial changes in the surveillance of the Chagas disease. Notably, the sexual transmission of the T. cruzi introduces changes in the concepts of medical care, prevention and control; specifically, the risk for the vertical transfer of the parasite-induced kDNA mutations, underpinning the genetically driven autoimmunity, inheritance, and pathogenesis associated with multifaceted clinical manifestations of Chagas disease with high ratios of morbidity and mortality. In this regard, the endemics require much paradigm research with new approaches and innovation technologies, aiming at its control. For example, the recent knowledge anticipates useful measures for preventing the potential forthcoming pandemic Chagas parasites. A long-lasting multicenter research program is needed for creative, drug discovery for curtailment of Chagas disease. Meanwhile, the prevention shall rely on the education, information, and communication program for health.

Research No-3

Hyphenated Techniques in Liquid Chromatography as Current Trends in Natural Products Analysis

Historically, drug discovery from natural products has been a time and resource-intensive process. Bioassay-guided isolation of natural products often leads to already known compounds of limited, or no chemical or pharmacological interest. Some bioactive compounds are unstable and separation using the traditional approach is often difficult. Full structural elucidation of pure compounds usually requires milligram quantities of compounds and that may require extracting large kilogram quantities of material especially for minor compounds. Rapid detection of biologically active natural products is desired, and to achieve this, dereplication of crude extracts performed prior to isolation work is of crucial importance for avoiding the isolation of a known constituent. Natural products research, as a strategy in drug discovery, has evolved over the last two decades with technological advances in the tools which are prerequisite in isolation and structural elucidation of compounds. Such is the shift from the classical/traditional stand-alone instrumental analytical approaches to newer hyphenated techniques (LC-UV/DAD, LC-MS and LC-NMR).This review describes the general principles and literature applications of these productivity tools in natural products isolation and structural elucidation and also as assay tools for quality control studies, with a discussion on their successes and intrinsic challenges. These hyphenated techniques will advance the course of natural products research and reduce the time and cost invested in the study of natural products, speeding up the drug discovery process.

latest research in social science


The Implications of Food Insecurity, Poverty and Hunger on Nigeria’s National Security

Globally, food and nutrition adequacy are facing critical challenges occasioned by climate change scenarios, sharply rising food demand to falling supply, neglect of investment in agriculture, and high cost of production. All these have serious implications on rising insecurity and conflict-induced instability in many countries. Further, an increasing poverty level among the people is a stress-factor as well as a precursor of violence. The thrust of this study is to examine the implications of food insecurity, poverty and hunger on Nigeria’s national security. The relative deprivation theory was adopted to explain the reactions of people when they feel that there is a discrepancy between the ‘ought’ and the ‘is’ of collective value satisfaction. Data were generated using secondary sources. The paper argues that reinstalling peace and security in Nigeria can only be achieved through careful identification and proper address of causal factors. The paper recommends, among others; that there should be improved agricultural productivity through the encouragement of research and application of modern technologies.

Keywords : Poverty; food insecurity; national security; hunger; relative deprivation.


Research Methodological Techniques as a Model for Quantitative Studies in Social Sciences

This paper attempts to present methodological techniques used in the study of the mediating role of psychological ownership on the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors. Several relevant research methodology issues to help shed light on required research methods for major research such as Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) have been highlighted in this paper. Specifically, this paper discussed reasons behind adoption of certain methodological techniques including positivist philosophical orientation, descriptive and explanatory research designs that were employed in reviewed study. In addition, the paper quantitatively demonstrated how the sample for the affected study was derived using some important tools. The paper also discussed questionnaire design and distribution strategy, pilot study, measurement scales, and the use of Partial Least Squares method (PLS) in the analysis of data for the affected study. The paper highlighted the methodological implication of the use of Partial Least Squares Method (PLS) in the study of the relationships between servant leader behaviors, psychological ownership and organizational citizenship behaviors.

Keywords :Research; methodology; PLS; servant leadership; psychological ownership; organizational citizenship.


Anti-Grazing Policy and Conflict Resolution between Fulani Herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State

This study assessed the Anti-Grazing Policy and Conflict Resolution between Fulani Herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State. The incessant conflict between Fulani herdsmen and farmers in Nigeria, especially the Ikole attack killing two people on 20th and Oke Ado Ekiti State attack on 21st May 2016 prompt the Ekiti State government to enact Anti-grazing law in Ekiti State. The objective of the study is to establish the role of Anti-Grazing Policy in Conflict Resolution between Fulani herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State. Qualitative approach which focuses on the explanation of subjective perspectives, processes and contextual meaning was employed for the study. Primary and secondary data sources were used to generate data for the study. Purposive sample was used to drawn the 22 interview respondents. Both data from interview and secondary sources were analysed qualitatively. The study revealed that the Ekiti State Government passed into Law Anti Grazing Bill 2016 to resolve various conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State. It also revealed that the Government set up Ekiti Anti-Grazing Enforcement Marshal who implements the Law. The State government partner with the 16 Local Governments in allocation of land to herdsmen for cattle’s grazing. It was established that the Government also collaborates with the herdsmen Association in Ekiti to maintain peaceful implementation of the law. It is evident that this Anti-grazing policy has succeeded in resolving conflict between Fulani herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State. We recommend creation of grazing zone; private ownership of ranch; border should be secured; training of Ekiti State Grazing Marshal and proper monitoring of their operations.

Keywords : Anti-Grazing; policy; conflict resolution; Fulani herdsmen; farmer.

Research in education


Integrated Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education through Active Experience of Designing Technical Toys in Vietnamese Schools

Aim: STEM has attracted great consideration. The purpose of research is: (i) study STEM education; (ii) explore STEM education with the creative and experiential activity; (iii) suggest applying STEM education by designing technical toys for the middle school student.

Study Design: This study used a qualitative approach to carry out teaching integration for STEM education.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study applied to teaching the technological field in Vietnamese middle schools. The design performed at the Faculty of Technology Education, Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE), Vietnam in April 2015.

Methods: This study used the integrated approach to design subjects for STEM education.

Results: Two procedures for integration undertook with analysis. A sample of producing technical toy was consistent with developing students’ competencies.

Conclusion: Integrated approach to STEM education through designing technical toys is possible. Recently, there has been a booming interest in Integrated Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education [1,2], but the approaches to STEM still remains controversial in diverse educational contexts. This study addressed this issue by exploring STEM education with the use of creative and experiential activities in a Vietnamese educational context. It also proposed a practical model for integrating STEM into teaching technology in secondary schools by designing technical toys. The implementation of the practical model suggests the possibility in using the integrated approach to STEM education through designing technical toys for middle school students in Vietnam. By applying the subject knowledge domains to solve real world problems and settings, the students can experience the benefits of a concrete and active learning in a meaningful and practical context. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary integration approaches are consistent with the development of the students’ competencies.

Keywords :STEM; STEM education; technical toy's design; experiential activity; active learning.


Factors Affecting Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education in Public Centres in Imenti South District, Kenya

Early Childhood serves the critical role of preparing young children for subsequent levels of Education. The study sought to determine the factors that affect the implementation of Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE) Programme in Imenti South District. Data were collected from a sample of 297 respondents comprising of ECDE teachers and CMC members. The instruments for data collection were questionnaires for ECDE teachers, focus group discussion for CMC members and observation schedules. The validity of the instruments was established through piloting and expert opinions. A reliability coefficient of 0.81 for ECDE teacher’s questionnaires was obtained using Spearman Brown Formula. The findings indicated that parents had a positive attitude towards ECDE programmes. The study recommends that the Government should provide the required physical facilities and teaching and learning materials to enable proper implementation of ECDE programme and ensure that the centers have the required ECDE teachers. The findings will also help the education managers to understand the challenges faced by ECDE sub-sector and help it to acquire its rightful status.

Keywords :Early childhood education; development education; public centres; Kenya.


Vicious Hazard to Peace Culture in Tertiary Education: The Activities of the Secret Cults

Aims: It is most unfortunate that human rights are no fundamental freedom in Nigerian Universities because of secret cult activities. This article explores the evolution, activities and consequences of cults and cult-like organisations on Nigerian campuses. Cults, both on campus and in society in general, carry serious negative consequences for education.

Methodology/Procedures: In this study, we employed a qualitative research design that used document analysis to evaluate the activities of the secrete cults in Nigerian campuses. This approach was used because it enabled us to obtain and interpret information, its meaning and experiences from a broad standpoint.

Results: The presence of violent cults in institutions of learning has resulted in the death and injury of both students and faculty. Their activities continue to impact feelings of safety and security as well as the more tangible election and/or appointment of student and university governments. While cults have been active on campuses in Nigeria for more than three decades there are a number of steps that can be taken to discourage and decrease their presence.

Conclusion: It is imperative that students, parents, tertiary education administrations, legal entities, and government begin to take more immediate, concrete and consistent steps to actively extinguish this threat to education.

Keywords : Peace culture; vicious hazard; tertiary education; secret cults; human rights; theoretical analysis.

Anaerobic Digestion of Abattoir Waste: A Combined Strategy for Biogas and Biofertilizer Production, and Waste Management


Aims: The study was carried out to estimate the biogas and biofertilizer potential of cattle Paunch and assess the waste treatment efficiency of the Anaerobic Digestion process.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria between March and August 2016.

Methodology: We digested paunch from the rumen of one cow anaerobically for 30 days. Biogas production was measured. The digestate compost was used in comparison with Urea to cultivate maize. The plant heights, Plant diameter, average growth rate, number of cobs and weight of cobs were the performance indicators. The results obtained for each parameter were subjected to a Two Way ANOVA at 95% Confidence level using Minitab 14.2 Statistical software. Physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the feedstock and digestate were used as indicators of the treatment efficiency.

Results: 0.61 m3 of biogas was produced over the retention time while the potential biogas production of one mature cow was estimated at 7.43 m3/year. A total of 14.7 kg of digestate compost was obtained and utilized for the maize production. The results of the ANOVA showed that there was significant difference between the treatments for all parameters with a P-value of .000 in each case. Only plant height showed significant different between plots with a P-value of .035. 53.13% percent reduction in Total solids was achieved by the anaerobic digestion process while the reduction in Volatile solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand, E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were 47.12%, 29.10% 86.75% and 91.28% respectively while the overall efficiency was estimated at 63.86%.

Conclusion: Biogas in good quantity and compost was produced via the anaerobic digestion of cattle paunch and the process achieved over 60% waste treatment efficiency.

Keywords :Abattoir waste; biogas; biofertilizer; digestate; waste management; maize yield.

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What Separated the Cuticle from the Avian Egg Shell is Unknown: Could it be the Yellow Maize Broth or Heat?


Aims: Avian egg internal components are sources of nutrients for the developing embryo while the external components especially the cuticle, have physical and biological defence mechanisms to protect the embryo against microbial attack. Consequently, the cuticle could be harvested and used in the production of pharmaceuticals for the treatment and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases as well as feed supplement in human and livestock nutrition. Unfortunately, little is known about the possibility of harvesting and utilizing avian egg cuticle hence, the present serendipitous discovery may serve as a guide to commercial production of avian egg cuticle.

Methodology: Six freshly laid eggs of Black Nera where cooked in an attempt to warm six broken yellow maize cobs and were left in the broth overnight.

Results: It was observed that the cuticles on all the eggs surfaces not submerged in the broth were removed and with gentle rubbing on the surfaces submerged in the broth, more cuticles were harvested. Although, the egg cuticle yield per egg was not determined, it was seemingly indicative that avian egg cuticle could be harvested commercially.

Conclusion: Black Nera egg cuticles could be harvested following cooking of freshly laid eggs left in a broth containing yellow maize overnight. The cooked yellow maize broth was observed to be misty, indicating composition of several substances suspected to be the cause of the egg cuticle’s removal. Although, there are apparent prospects of harvested avian egg cuticle that could be explored, some limitations to its optimal utilization may be contemplated. Hence, research activities geared towards avian egg cuticle nutritional profiles determination, pharmacological trial, composition of cooked yellow maize broth and ways to harvest avian egg cuticles should be painstakingly conducted.

Keywords :Avian egg; Black Nera; harvested cuticle; yellow maize.

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Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine, Catechin, Epicatechin, Chlorogenic and Caffeic Acid in Cola nitida Dried Nuts from Côte d’Ivoire Using HPLC


Aims: A simple high performance liquid chromatographic analysis (HPLC) for Cola nitida caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic and caffeic acid with a gradient system elution system was developed.

Study Design: Mature kola seeds were collected in October 2014-February 2015 in South of Côte d’Ivoire. Harvested kola nuts were transferred to the laboratory until used in the experiments.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during the year 2016 at European institute of membranes, France.

Methodology: Kola nuts was extracted from mature kola seeds (Cola nitida Schott & Endl.) and the extract was obtained by infusion of kola nut powder in water-ethanol mixture at room temperature. The compounds were separated by of a C18 reversed-phase column with a gradient elution system of binary phase consisted of A (95/5, water-H2O/methanol-MeOH + 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-TFA) and B (100% acetonitrile-ACN + 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-TFA) and an UV detector. All of these compounds were separated within 70 min. The validity of this method was confirmed by their quantitative measurement in kola samples.

Results: The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of these compounds were within the range of 0.098 to 0.47 µg/mL and 0.3 to 1.45 µg/mL, respectively. All the analyses exhibited good linearity with correlations coefficients above 0.9974 and the accuracies for the analyses were 97 – 104%.

Conclusion: Using this analytical method, the bioactive compounds of kola nuts have been determined with satisfactory. The presence of these compounds (caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, cholrogenic acid and caffeic acid) in the extract justifies the industrial interest of kola nuts.

Keywords :Cola nitida; kola nuts; caffeine; polyphenol; HPLC; validation.

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Plasmid – mediated Resistance in Salmonella typhi Isolates from Door Handles in Nasarawa State, North-central Nigeria


Contamination of door handles with antibiotic resistant bacteria can be a major threat to public health, as the antibiotic resistant determinants can be transferred to other pathogenic bacteria thus, compromising the treatment of severe bacterial infections. This study investigated the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile of Salmonella typhi isolated from door handles of two tertiary institutions in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. One hundred door handles from each of the two institutions, making 200 in total were sampled and 36(18.00%) S. typhi were isolated. The isolates were 100% resistant to 7 out of the 10 antibiotics tested. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) study on selected multiple antibiotics resistant isolates showed that the isolates were susceptible to the tested antibiotics in the following order: Imipenem = Ciprofloxacin > Ceftazidime > Cefuroxime > Ampicillin > Nitrofurantoin. Fourteen (38.89%) of the multiple antibiotic resistant isolates produced beta lactamase enzymes. Conjugation experiment on the multiple antibiotics resistant S. typhi isolates showed that 7(18.42%) of the test S. typhi isolates transferred resistance plasmid gene to sensitive Proteus mirabilis and the MICs of the recipients increased significantly after conjugation. Plasmid profile of the transconjugants and the donors showed the presence of plasmid of different sizes ranging from 1600 to 2500 base pairs in both donor multiple antibiotics resistant S. typhi and transconjugants P. mirabilis. The transfer of resistant plasmids between bacteria could result in serious epidemics that may be difficult to manage.

Keywords :Salmonella typhi; antibiotics susceptibility; Proteus mirabilis; conjugation experiment; plasmid profile.

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On the Adsorptive Detoxification of Chrome Tan Liquor: Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Mode of Transport


Aim: The aim of this study is to regenerate spent activated carbon (RGAC) for use as adsorbent and to study the kinetics, thermodynamics and mode of transport of removing chromium from chrome tanning effluent (TEff).

Methodology: The chemical regeneration approach was adopted in the recycling. Regenerated adsorbent was characterized using FTIR, SEM and classical methods. A batch adsorption experiment was carefully followed to de-chrome the chrome tan effluent. Equilibrium phase chromium was quantified with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Adsorption phenomena were investigated with Kinetic, thermodynamic and transport (diffusion) models to study the behavior of Cr uptake. Kinetic models viz; First order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and Bhattacharya-Venkobachor kinetic models were subjected to three model applicability tests. Thermodynamic parameters which include changes in free energy (ΔG), entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) were monitored in standard states. Prediction of applicable diffusion model was based on comparing linearity of film diffusion, intra-particle diffusion and intraparticulate diffusivity models.

Results: Highlights from this study unveiled the influential roles of parametric factors (Initial effluent concentration on vol./vol. bases, solution pH, particle size, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature). R2 values for models considered showed good fit except for the Bhattacharya-Venkobachor kinetic model. The rate law of the adsorption kinetics is best explained using the Pseudo-second order kinetic model. The chromium adsorption efficiency using both Commercial and regenerated GAC are in good agreement at 95% confidence interval. The regenerant-chromium mode of diffusion, as predicted by the “best-fit’’ transport models, was not suitable for use in the intraparticle diffusion mode (with least R2 and high transport rate) as it does for the film diffusion. In addition, thermodynamic parameters of sorption have also been determined in favour of spontaneity and chemisorptions mechanism.

Conclusion: An overall from this study is the recommendation of regenerated adsorbent as a sure economically viable substitute to the commercial activated carbon for chrome tan effluent de-chroming. This generalization was based on statistical test of significance which reports good agreement between the two adsorbents for the investigated adsorption phenomena.

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Effects of Acacia albida and Crotalaria retusa on the Growth and Development of Tomato


Tomato fruits play an important role in human nutrition because of their high content in health-promoting substances. However, the cultivation of the crop requires substantial chemical (fertilizers and pesticides), which can impair the nutritional value of fruits produced and harm the environment. This study aimed at using biological material to improve the tomato cultivation system. Tomato seedlings were transplanted in perforated polythene bags containing a soil enriched with powder or extraction residues from leaves of Acacia albida and Crotalaria retusa. Aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform or hexane extracts from leaves of Acacia albida and Crotalaria retusa were sprayed on aerial parts of tomato plants. Of a total of twelve parameters measured, eight parameters were significantly improved after treatments with aqueous or chloroform extracts from A. albida leaves, six after soil enrichment with the powder of A. albida leaves, four after foliar sprays of ethyl acetate extract from C. retusa leaves, three after soil amendment with powder or extraction residues from leaves of C. retusa or extraction residues from A. albida leaves, two after the application as sprays of hexane extract from A. albida leaves, and one after treatments with hexane extract or powder from leaves of C. retusa. However, foliar sprays of the aqueous extract from leaves of A. albida had the most efficacious effects, leading to increases in the number of fruits per raceme, number of fruits per plant, number of racemes per plant, root biomass, shoot biomass, fruit biomass and total biomass, respectively, by 2.3 (38.98%), 35.1 (92.61%), 2.5 (39.06%), 6.1 g (50%), 74 g (29.75%), 300 g (42.85%) and 300 g (30%). These treatments also induced a decrease in the rate of flower abortion in tomato plants by 6.3 (25.09%). Foliar sprays of aqueous extracts from leaves of A. albida could be integrated into the tomato agricultural practice in order to reduce the quantity of chemical inputs usually required.

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Effect of Malting & Fermentation on the Functional & Rheological Properties of Sorghum Flour


Sorghum is widely grown in India, Maharashtra is the leading state in its production. Sorghum is popular for poor man’s food. Sorghum-based product is composed of high nutritional value and acceptability. Although Sorghum has a number of benefits viz., it provides a high amount of carbohydrates, rather than it contains phenolic compounds and antioxidants which helps in managing diabetes, heart health, improves digestive health, beneficial in maintaining healthy bones and reduces the risk of cancer. Malting and fermentation are the two most important term which gets a huge impact on the rheological and functional behaviour of the sorghum flour. Malting and fermentation placed a good impact on the sorghum flour. Effect of this malting and fermentation varies with the various varieties of sorghum as they composed of different characteristics.

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Association of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) with Food Security and Nutrition Status among Persons Living with HIV


Aims: Nutritional status can be compromised by food insecurity which is common among HIV infected persons. Providing food assistance is expected to improve food insecurity and nutritional status among persons infected with HIV. This study aimed at examining the relationship of participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the largest food assistance program in the United States, with food security and nutritional status among HIV infected adults.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Miami, FL, USA, between April 2011 and August 2012.

Methodology: We included 159 HIV infected individuals in this study, 113 participants were SNAP recipients while 46 were not. All study participants were, however, eligible to participate in SNAP. Each participant completed demographic and food security surveys as well as dietary and nutrition status assessment. Statistical analyses were conducted using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: More than half (56%) of the sample experienced food insecurity and had inadequate intakes of several nutrients. There were no significant differences in food security level and nutritional status between SNAP participants and eligible non-participants, even after controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Individuals with very low food security had 4.7 times increased odds (95% CI: 1.29-17.38) of illicit drugs use, which was prevalent (38%) among HIV+ SNAP participants in Miami. Drug users were more than twice likely to have inadequate intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and zinc, compared to non-drug users.

Conclusion: Our results do not support an association between SNAP participation and food security or nutritional status in this cohort of HIV infected individuals with prevalent substance abuse. However, it demonstrates that food insecurity and inadequate nutrient intake continues to be prevalent among HIV infected adults and it is related to drug abuse. Resources need to be identified and targeted at addressing both food insecurity and poor nutritional outcomes among populations of HIV infected adults.

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AYA and HANA: New Seedless Mandarin’s Triploid Hybrids Selected in Morocco


Seedlessness is a major objective in Morocco Citrus improvement programmes. Triploidy has played an important role in the development of new seedless mandarin cultivars for fresh fruit market and has received increasing attention for the consumers. For that, many series of diploid crosses were assessed. At maturity, the fruits have been harvested, and small embryos were extracted from undeveloped seed and cultured on the medium of Murashig and Skoog supplemented with 1mg/l gibberellic acid according. Triploids seedling selected by flow cytometry analysis were budded on Troyer citrange and planted in INRA domain with spacing 6 m X 3 m. Tow new seedless selections of mandarins have been evaluated in a citrus breeding program at Morocco INRA: Hana and Aya that were compared with their female parent clementine Sidi Aissa. These promising seedless mandarins were identified by easy-peeling, juicy fruits, have a pleasant taste and are sweet like the Sidi Aissa Clementine. These clones, showing commercial interest, were described and registered in Moroccan official catalogue.

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Microbiological Examination and Physicochemical Analysis of Estuary Water Used as a Point of Source Drinking Water


Introduction: Access to potable water is a fundamental human right. However, this is hardly the case in the rural areas of oil producing communities of the Niger Delta.

Aim of Study: The primary aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of estuary water used as potable water.

Method: Estuary water samples were collected from Eastern Obolo community in Akwa Ibom State, Niger Delta, Nigeria and analysed for physiochemical using standard techniques, and microbiological parameters using standard cultural and metagenomics techniques. Replicate data from microbiological and physicochemical analyses were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while bioinformatic analyses were done using Vecton NTI suite 9 (InforMax, Inc.), NCBI-BLAST-2.2.24 and CLC bio Genomics workbench v7.5.1.

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The Case Report of the Pulmonary Larval Paragonimiasis with Simulating Cancer of the Lung


Larval Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the larvae of the pulmonary fluke. In contrast to the classical Paragonimiasis, larval occurs with a large number of clinical manifestations. However, this fact only complicates the diagnosis of larval Paragonimiasis, as the abundance of clinical manifestations leads to false diagnosis of other diseases. Another distinguishing feature of this form of Paragonimiasis is the propensity to generalization and to imitation of a clinical picture of malignant neoplasms. A 66-year-old patient was infected with a larval form of Paragonimiasis, with invaded lung, pleura, heart, liver, right kidney, spleen, stomach and small omentum. Diagnostic measures performed could not give an accurate idea of ​​the nature of the disease, so a diagnostic thoracoscopy was performed and urgent biopsy from region of dissemination was taken, which showed a glandular cancer of the lower lobe of the lung. This circumstance became the reason for performing atypical resection of the affected part, which was done, but on the second day of the postoperative period the patient died as a result of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The cause of the disease is chronic pulmonary generalized Paragonimiasis (cyst and pneumosclerotic stages) with neoplastic syndrome.

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Association of Soil Parameters with Various Age Classes of Forests of Mukundpur, Satna, Forest Division, Madhya Pradesh, India


Aims: This forest area was susceptible to illicit felling, encroachment and illicit mining. From this problem the forests are changing from stocked - under stocked - blank forests. The majority of the area are blank and under stocked category. To re-vegetate the blank and under stocked area into stocked forests, the soil parameters in the study area were needed to be studied in detail. In the present study the associations of soil parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, availability of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) and micro nutrients like (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) with various age classes of forests were analyzed.

Study Design: Stratified systematic random sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Study area was the forest area of 111.55 km2 of Mukundpur range of Satna Forest division, Madhya Pradesh, India. Field work was carried out during October 2015 to January 2016.

Methodology: The vegetation sampling had been done to assess the forest resource survey. Stratified systematic random sampling method was used for sampling the vegetation. The minimum numbers of sample points were calculated using statistical formula. The 151 sample points at 30”x 30” were selected on safer side with the help of GPS. Half kg of soil sample was collected from central quadrat from the depth of 30 cm from the sample point and air-dried under shade. These samples were sent to soil testing lab Rewa to assess the soil parameters pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, available P2O5, available K2O and micronutrient analysis for availability of zinc, iron, manganese and copper. The Microsoft access program was developed to evaluate the above soil parameters in various age classes of forests. Age classes of forest are defined as, Mature: where average girth of forest trees is more than 120 cm, Middle age: where the average girth of trees of a particular forest stands between 61-120 cm, Young age: where average girth of trees of particular stand is below 60 cm.

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A Study on Knowledge and Adoption Level of Improved Animal Husbandry Practices by Farm Women of Haryana


The study was conducted in kurukshetra district of Haryana to assess the extent of knowledge and adoption level of farm women for improved animal husbandry practices. Four villages were selected at random from randomly selected two blocks of kurukshetra district and finally 160 respondents selected purposively for the study. Thirty five practices of improved animal husbandry were subdivided into seven major aspects of animal husbandry viz., housing, feeding, pregnant & calf management, breeding management, health management, milking management and marketing. Semi structured interview schedule was used to collect the data, using personal interview. Majority of the respondents had higher knowledge about breeding management with mean knowledge score (4.88) followed by milking management (4.71), health management (4.66), pregnant animal and calf management (4.13) and housing (3.51). Medium level of knowledge of women was found in case of feeding (3.0). The poor knowledge of respondents among all the practices was found about marketing (1.54). In case of adoption the higher adoption mean score was found in health management (4.79) followed by breeding management (4.66), milking management (4.24), pregnant animal and calf management (4.12). Medium level of adoption was reported in case of feeding and low adoption in marketing practices. The age of the respondents was positively correlated with women knowledge in animal husbandry while age and farm assets were negatively correlated with adoption of animal husbandry practices by women.

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Role of Ethrel, Polythene Bags and KMnO4 on Storage Life of Banana cv. Grand Naine


Banana is an important fruit crop with high productivity. “GRAND NAINE’ variety of banana has been popularized because of high yield potential with quality fruits. Post harvest life of banana fruit is short for its perishable and climacteric nature. Various physico-chemical changes occur during ripening. A research study was carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, Khalsa College, Amritsar during 2016-2017 to study the effect of ethrel, polythene bags and KMnO4 on storage life of banana cv. Grand Naine. The experiment comprised of seven postharvest treatments viz., ethrel 300 ppm, ethrel 400 ppm, ethrel 600 ppm, perforated polythene bags, unperforated polythene bags, unperforated polythene bags with KMnO4 and control. Results revealed that Among all the treatments, KMnO4 treated banana showed minimum (2.3%) total weight loss at 8th day of storage. The highest fruit color (7), pulp to peel ratio (2.41%), fruit taste (9.10), moisture content in pulp (76.60%), total soluble solids (21.97%), total sugars (18.09%) and reducing sugars (12.10%) were observed in the treatment of ethrel 600 ppm.

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The Challenges of New Product Development in a Developing Economy


New Product Development (NPD) involves creating a new product from concept to the market. The product could be entirely new or rebranding. It is a critical focus of any production firm. The increase in volume of new competitive products is an indicator of any fast growing production concern. However the challenges that could affect development of a new product in a developing economy include, but not limited to the following: Inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of funding, low technological skill, lead time for product development, poor marketing strategies and post product evaluation. There are few studies dedicated to New Product Development (NPD) in this hypercompetitive de-regulated industry today, hence the need to study the probable challenges to be encountered in developing new product becomes necessary. Profit and value added oriented industries have structured organization that facilitates new product development. Such products are developed to satisfy customers’ needs at a time. One critical factor that could be used to assess the acceptability of any new product in the market is the post market performance analysis. However the magnitude of this analysis is not isolated from those challenges peculiar to New Product Development. This study highlights method and stages that project managers require to develop quality new products with challenging time-to-market goals.

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The investigation was aimed to electrodeposit chromium on mild steel surface from non-toxic trivalent chromium bath instead of toxic hexavalent chromium employed for this purpose. We observed the effect of pH, temperature, current density (C.E.) and also time on to the current efficiency. On the other hand we also observed the effect of the concentration of CrCl3 on the plating thickness and optical reflectivity. The optimum pH value and bath temperature are 3 and 40°C respectively to obtain highest current efficiency. On the other hand, 90 min deposition time was the best for high current efficiency. We also achieved good current efficiency at 20 A/dcm2 current density. But the plating thickness was increased with increasing the CrCl3 concentration in the electrolyte. In case of optical reflectivity, the result is totally opposite. Our findings will contribute to develop the products of plating industries.

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Response of Cotton and Soybean Intercropping System to Integrated Nutrient Management


Aims: Field experiment was conducted to study the integrated nutrient management on yield, all yield components and resource use efficiency of cotton and soybean intercropping system.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with three replications and twenty treatments.

Place and Duration of Study: Plot number ‘101’ of ‘D’ block, All India Coordinated Research Project, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka (India) during June 2016.

Methodology: As per the treatments, organic manure (FYM) and green leaf manures (gliricidia and pongamia) were applied 15 days before sowing of the crop. Vermicompost was applied on the spot to soil before dibbling of seeds in cotton and soybean intercropping system in 1:2 row proportions, soybean introduced as intercrop in cotton with row spacing of cotton 120 cm and soybean 30 cm.

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Histological Studies on Heteracris littoralis (Rambur) Treated with Silica Nano-particles / Challenger Formulation


Aim: Local diatomaceous earth (Silica nano-particles) and commercial pesticide (Challenger 36% SC) formulation was tested against alfalfa grasshopper, Heteracris littoralis (Rambur, 1838) (Orthopetra: Acrididae) under laboratory conditions.

Study Design: Histological study for alimentary tract using light microscope.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pests and Plant Protection, National Research Centre, Egypt- 2016-2017.

Methodology: Fourth instar nymphs of H. littoralis were taken from laboratory culture reared on semi-artificial diet [1] for the experiments. The nymphs were fed on diet mixed with 1% concentration of Silica nano-particles/Challenger formulation. The tissue specimens of the alimentary canal were dissected in 0.9% NaCl solution and fixed in Bouin's solution for 24 hours [2] then dehydrated in ascending alcoholic series and cleared in Xylen for few seconds, and then specimens were infiltrated in three changes of paraffin wax each lasted 20 minutes. With Ehrlich's acid haematoxylin and alcoholic eosin. The stained sections were dehydrated, cleared and mounted using D.P.X. For microscope examination.

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Analytical Approach to Critical Diameters in Raindrop Size Distribution in Durban, South Africa


Adequate information of the raindrop size distribution is very significant for the prediction and evaluation of attenuation signal due to rain. In this study, an analytical approach is adopted to determine the peak diameter Dp where the specific rain attenuation is maxima in Durban (29º52'S, 30º58'E), South Africa; using the spherical raindrop shape at temperature T = 20ºC. The overall rainfall attenuation is computed by integrating over all the drop sizes and determine the differential change in the attenuation as observed over a fixed diameter interval, dDi (= 0.1 mm). The critical diameters are the range of diameters where the rain attenuation is highly predominant, which constitutes the surface area under the curve and along the abscissa regions. The critical diameters are seen to coalesce around the peak diameter, at which the maximum attenuation occurs. The maximum specific rain attenuation peaks at the diameter Dp= exp[σ2 (α-1)+μ] (mm) It was observed that the peak diameter is frequency dependent while the parameters, µ, the mean and σ the standard deviation which determines the width of the distribution are found to be region-dependent. The peak attenuation for the stratiform rainfall type varies between 0.8 ≤ D ≤ 1.5 mm whereas for the convective rainfall, the specific rain attenuation peaks between 1.4 ≤ D ≤ 2.7 mm at all frequencies. A proper knowledge of the rainfall attenuation characteristics is useful for proper planning and for the purpose of link budget analysis by operators in this particular region.

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Women’s Perception on Community Based Development Organization Activities in Imo State, Nigeria


Women’s community based organization serves as the apex organization for rural development and their perception in the activities involved should not be overlooked. This is because perception precedes action. The study assessed women’s perception on Community Based Development Organization activities in Imo State, Nigeria. These women organizations were purposively selected from 10 communities with developmental projects. Random sampling procedure was adopted to select 120 members of the organization, thus 12 respondents from each community. Primary data were collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages and mean scores. The result on personal/socio-economic characteristics revealed that a good proportion of the respondents fall within the age bracket of 31-50 (58%), married (75%) with household size of 1-5 (66.7%). Also 66% of the respondents had a secondary and tertiary education while the majority were farmers and traders/artisans (80%) with a minimum income of N10, 000 – 200,000 per month. The result also revealed that the respondents were involved in all the developmental activities listed. The major activities include: attending meetings (100%), mobilization of funds (100%), contribution of time/labour (83.3%), actual execution of projects (83.3%), awareness creation (75%), environmental sanitation (66.7%) and healthcare provision (66.7%) respectively. The respondents’ perception on community-based development activities involved showed high and positive perception (M = 3.2) while rural development in the community ranked 1st, non-recognition of women as partners in development by government, feeling of joy and satisfaction in involvement and no compensation from the government ranked 2nd and 3rd respectively. The study therefore, recommends that the government should identify and recognize the efforts of the women organization as supportive to rural development and try to compensate through awards/training. The women organization should organize to get assistance from national and international agencies as well as consult with governmental development agencies.

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Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Fatty Acid Contents and Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Hedysarum aucheri


In vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities along with total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, hexane, dichloromethane, butanol, and aqueous extracts and chemical composition and fatty acids of n-hexane extract from endemic Hedysarum aucheri were determined. The fatty acid content of the n-hexane extract was determined by GC-MS analysis. Twenty-four out of 39 compounds identified as fatty acid methyl esters constitute 84.20% of hexane extract content. Five of 6 major components were fatty acids, namely alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (32.37%), palmitic acid (24.69%), linoleic acid (LA) (9.16%), stearic acid (7.11%), Arachidic acid (3.14%), and the other one was an acyclic diterpene alcohol called phytol (12.01%). Butanol extract was found to be the richest in flavonoid (66.3 ±1.3 mg QU/g DW) and phenolic (122.4±1.6 mg GAE/g DW) compounds. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by Cupric-ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ABTS radical scavenging capacity. Butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity indicating a strong correlation between flavonoid/phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Also, cytotoxic activities of the extracts were evaluated against a panel of cancer cells (PC3, HeLa, CaCo-2, U-87MG, A549, and MCF-7) and normal cell line HEK293. Dichloromethane extract (DCM) exhibited exceptionally high tumor selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells with IC50 values varying between 0.64 and 24 µg/mL while not impairing the normal cells. DCM extract was found to possess higher cytotoxic activity towards the tested cancer cells than some anticancer drugs reported in the literature. Also, antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined by agar disc diffusion and the micro-dilution methods against a series of microorganisms and hexane extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We hereby report both the pharmaceutical potential of H. aucheri concerning its various biological activities and the phytochemical composition regarding its total flavonoid, phenolic, and fatty acid content.

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Probabilistic Estimation of Potential Gas Reserves for the Emerging Nigerian Gas Market


Proved reserves for the Emerging Nigerian Gas Market is estimated to be around 186 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). In the short to medium term, only 54% or approximately 100 Tcf will be available for utilisation, the remaining locked up as Gas Cap Gas, only available on the long term (constrained by OPEC production quota and lack of Gas Utilisation Infrastructure). The objective of this study was to estimate the growth potential of Associated Gas (AG) reserves and more importantly determine probabilistic estimates for potential reserves additions from the extensive Non-associated Gas (NAG) accumulations in the Niger Delta.

The Niger Delta potential AG reserves growth (deterministic) was investigated using historical reserves figures and the probabilistic potential reserves additions from NAG were explored using simple triangular distributions. The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Reserves classification framework was employed to categorize the Proved reserves (1P or P1) as AG Reserves and Reserves additions from NAG as P2 for Probable reserves (2P or P1+P2) generated as a cumulative distribution till 2050.

The results obtained indicated NAG reserves addition to the proved reserves has a 90% confidence limit of reaching between 78.39 and 89.80 Tcf, and a Standard deviation of 3.42 Tcf in 2050. The 2P reserves estimate in 2050 is expected to lie between 267.06 Tcf and 278.49 Tcf within a confidence interval of 90%. Standard deviation from these values was also estimated as 3.42 Tcf. About total reserves of 275 Tcf would lie below the 75th percentile.

The distribution of reserves obtained would significantly improve future gas reserves availability estimates and plausible production profiles for prospective investors planning to participate in gas to power and other gas utilisation projects in the emerging Nigerian gas market.

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Analysis of National Health Insurance Holders Choice of a Preferred Primary Healthcare Provider in Ho Municipality, Ghana


This paper examines factors National Health Insurance holders consider in selecting their primary healthcare providers in Ho Municipality. The general purpose of the study is to bring to light the leading factors that influence a patient’s choice of a healthcare provider, specifically, the study assesses the distribution of insurance holder’s selection of healthcare providers, examines insurance holder’s choice of a healthcare provider across age line, determines salient factors that influence choice of a healthcare provider and investigates gender perception on indicator variables that influence choice of a healthcare provider. The research used cross-sectional design and multi-stage sampling technique to collect data on 400 sampled NHIS insurance holders with age 18 years and above. Preliminary analysis was used to explore the demographic characteristics of the study unit, Man Whitney U test was used to compare gender views on indicator variables while chi –square test and factor analysis were used to compare choice of a healthcare provider across age group and salient factors that insurance holders consider in selecting their primary healthcare providers respectively. Results from the study indicate that majority of the insurance holders select or will select Municipal hospital as their primary care provider, and thus 70.5% of the time appreciates the introduction of the capitation policy. The study revealed four factors that insurance holders consider in selecting their primary care providers as; hospital service delivery, customer care and prestige, distance and family and peer influence factors. The study further shows that an insurance holders’ choice of primary care provider is dependent on age. In order for healthcare providers to provide quality healthcare, it is suggested that NHIS should ensure timely discharge of funds whiles Ghana Health Service also should consider providing more medical equipment and manpower to healthcare provider’s especially in the Municipal hospital since it seems to be the preference for patients thus the largest patient base.

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Modeling andSimulation of High Blocking Voltage in 4H Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistors


For a given breakdown voltage, the drift region thickness and doping concentration of punch-through structure can be optimized to give the lowest specific on-resistance. An optimization scheme performed for a breakdown voltage of 14 kV in 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT) at 300 K. The optimum drift region thickness and doping concentration for a 4H-SiC punch-through structure at different breakdown voltages are presented. The optimum drift region thickness and doping concentration are 114 μm and 6.6Χ1014cm-3 , respectively, which results in the lowest specific on-resistance of 117 mΩcm2. The specific on-resistance is compared with the theoretical specific on-resistance of non punch-through structure. It is shown that the optimized punch-through structure not only has a thinner drift region, but also has a slightly lower specific on-resistance than non punch-through structure. The model is applied and compared to a measured 4H-SiC bipolar transistors with high blocking voltage and results are discussed. The experimental 4H-SiC BJT is able to block 1631 V at 300 K and 2033 V at 523 K, respectively and when the base is open. The simulated blocking voltage when base is open is slightly lower (1600 V at 300 K) than the experimental value due to the current-amplifying properties of the common-emitter BJT.

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