Elements and Principals of Design
- Color- An element of art made up of three properties: hue, value, and intensity • Hue: name of color • Value: hue’s lightness and darkness (a color’s value changes when white or black is added) • Intensity: quality of brightness and purity (high intensity= color is strong and bright; low intensity= color is faint and dull)
- Value- The lightness or darkness of tones or colors. White is the lightest value; black is the darkest. The value halfway between these extremes is called middle gray.
- Space- An element of art by which positive and negative areas are defined or a sense of depth achieved in a work of art .
- Shape- An element of art that is two-dimensional, flat, or limited to height and width.
- Texture- An element of art that refers to the way things feel, or look as if they might feel if touched.
- Form- An element of art that is three-dimensional and encloses volume; includes height, width AND depth (as in a cube, a sphere, a pyramid, or a cylinder). Form may also be free flowing.
- Line- An element of art defined by a point moving in space. Line may be two-or three-dimensional, descriptive, implied, or abstract.
- Emphasis- A way of combining elements to stress the difference between those elements.
Element Cuts Project
Step #1- Draw out four sketches
Step #2- Choose the best sketch to use for your real project
Step #3- Draw your chosen sketch with pencil lightly on both the white and black pieces of paper. Cut out along the lines on the white piece of paper and then when glueing try to match up the lines with the ones on the black piece of paper. Let the glue dry almost completely before placing the white piece of paper on the black.
Step #4- Once you have completed the steps from above, you use a glue eraser to get rid of any glue along the edges of the pieces.
I created a balanced composition by making my white pieces the same width. I also measured the space in between each piece making them the same so it looked equal. I used geometric shapes because I don't like working with organic shapes and much as I like cutting and drawing geometric shapes. I made some shapes that are just rectangles and then I made a couple of other shapes that look like a corner of a rectangle. I used rhythm to create a sense of movement towards my focal point. I made my pieces looker smaller as your eyes moved up the page but repeated the shapes in a pattern. Looking back over at my craftsmanship throughout my project I think that I did really well staying focused and making sure that everything would line up when I glued it onto the black paper. The hardest part for me when creating this project was measuring each piece on the black piece of paper and then trying to make it the same on the white piece of paper. After I finished that part of the layout, it became easier to complete. I made a light grid on my paper and then looked for an intersection point to then put my focal point. I decided to put my focal point up in the right hand corner because that was the one point your eyes went to when looking at my design. I chose green as my color piece because it was a bright, vibrant color that made my piece stick out more. The color green changed my overall composition because all of the other pieces are black or white.
Asymmetry- A lack of equality or equivalence between parts or aspects of something.
Balance- The way in which the elements in visual arts are arranged to create a feeling of equilibrium in an artwork. The three types of balance are symmetry, asymmetry, and radial.
Collage- An artistic composition made of various materials (e.g., paper, cloth, or wood) glued on a surface.
Composition- The overall placement and organization of elements in a work of art, as well as the interrelationships between individual elements.
Elements of Design- Sensory components used to create and talk about works of art: Line, color, shape/form, texture, value, space.
Geometric Shape- Any shape or form having more mathematic than organic design. Geometric designs are typically made with straight lines or shapes from geometry.
Line- An element of art that refers to the continuous mark made on a surface by a moving point. In visual art, a delineation or fracturing of space in color or black and white. Line qualities can vary in width, length, gesture, color, direction, etc.
Negative Space- Shapes or spaces that are or represent the area unoccupied by objects.
Positive Space- Shapes or spaces in an image that represent solid objects or forms.
Principles of Design- A design concept describing the ways in which the elements of an image are arranged (ie. balance, contrast, dominance, emphasis, movement, repetition, rhythm, variation, unity)
Shape- A two-dimensional area or plane that may be open or closed, free form or geometric. It can be found in nature or created by humans.
Space- The area between, around, above, below, or contained within objects. Spaces are areas defined by the shapes and forms around them and within them, just as shapes and forms are defined by the space around and within them.
Symmetry- A balance of parts on opposite sides of a perceived midline, giving the appearance of equal visual weight.
First we picked out pieces of glass and cut them so they would fit on top of each other. Then we glued them together with glass glue to then be put into the kiln.
Final piece after the kiln
For my glass piece I chose to do blue green and red as my colors because those are the colors my mom wears the most. I decided to place them on top of a opaque white piece of glass because it allowed the stringers and the square blue piece of glass to stand out more. I then placed a clear piece of glass as the third layer because it allows you to see everything underneath while making the top smooth. I used geometric shapes, started out with a larger rectangle on the bottom, then layered a smaller blue square and two long rectangular stringers on top of that. Then I put another rectangle, almost the same size as the piece on the bottom, to pull it all together. I am happy with how it turned out, however if I could change anything I would of moved the red stringer over a little bit to space it out from the blue part.
Description- is identifying the literal qualities or realistic presentation of subject matter, along with the elements of art found. It demands only the facts of what can be seen, often in one or more works of art; and partly two or more works can be described by comparing them to each other.
Design- A plan, or to plan. The organization or composition of a work; the skilled arrangement of its parts. An effective design is one in which the elements of art and principles of design have been combined to achieve an overall sense of unity.
Dominance- The part of a composition that is emphasized, has the greatest visual weight, the most important, powerful, or has the most influence. A certain color can be dominant, and so can an object,line, shape, or texture.
Form- The element of art that refers to an object with three-dimensions (height, width, and depth) and encloses volume.
Hue- The colors name. Example: red
Proportion- The relation of one thing to another with respect to size and placement.
Variety- The combination of elements or art, such as line, shape, or color, in an artwork. Variety is a principle of design.
Linoleum Cuts Project
Step #1- Sketch out a design and use markers to color the paper the way that you will paint it. Then use graphite paper to transfer the design onto the linoleum (use a pen to trace).
Step #2- Use a brayer to roll paint onto your design. Then place carefully onto your piece of paper, while lining it up with the markings. Then turn over the paper and rub the back of the paper with a burnishing tool so the paint will stick. Carefully pull the paper up and place on the drying rack.
burnishing burnishing burnishing learned through the process of the linoleum cut project about how to use the tools properly and how to pick colors that would look together. It was difficult when cutting shapes out in the linoleum, however once I got a feel for it, it became easier. Coming up with a design was one of the hardest things for me because once I would finish one, I would realize it wouldn't work out. Then we were rolling the paint on the brayer, I realized that the paint would actually come off more if I rolled it 4-6 times compared to when I rolled it only once or twice it would stick better. It would also have a better overall coverage on my print. In the end, I learned a lot about all of the tools we used and how to make, close to perfect, print.
Contour- The outline of a shape.
Cross-hatching- A method of showing value by using parallel lines at different angles that get darker as they are drawn closer together.
Focal Point- The area in a work of art that an artist emphasizes.
Horizon Line- In an artwork, the line where the ground and sky appear to meet.
Monochromatic- A color scheme using only tints and shades of a single color.
Monoprint- A print made from a plate that can be used only once.
Neutrals- A word used for black, white, and tints and shades of gray. (Some artists use tints and shades of brown as neutrals.)
Plate- In printmaking, a piece of flat material, such as wood or metal, with a design on the surface. The plate is used to print the design.
Print- An artwork created by making an impression of a design.
Print making- The transference of an image from one surface (plate or block) to another (usually paper) with ink. The process of making one or more prints.
Relief Printing- A print made by covering a printing block with ink or paint and pressing paper onto the block. The areas or lines gouged out do not print. (Examples: woodcut, block print, linocut, styrofoam plate, etc.
Step #1- You sketch your design with pencil on the paper and then use tape to prevent the paint from bleeding into the places you want to be white. Then watercolor and use salt to add a texture. Once it is dry, then you take off the tape and brush off the salt.
Step #2- You retape the parts you don't want the screen print to go on. When printing you put the paint on the screen with your artwork under it. Then at a 45 degree angle use the squigie to pull the paint over the screen evenly.
Step #3- Take off the paint and use a textured rubber brush to paint. Then put it on the drying rack and wait for it to be dry.
Step #5- Use string gel to design. Once that is dry, you can zentangle to add detail.
epoxy #6- Paint a box and then use spray glue to attach your art to it. Once it is dry, use an x-acto knife to cut off the paper around the edge. Then, we use epoxy regin.
In my piece, the hardest part for me was creating a design and picking out colors that complement each other. Once I got through the watercolors, I found it easier to make decisions on what to add and what colors to use. However, I had to screen print twice because my first time I used yellow and it didn't turn out the way I wanted. Then I rescreen printed in a bright pink and it turned out to be my favorite part of my piece. The easiest part was the string gel and zentangling because I knew before what I wanted to do.
Abstract- A style of art that is not realistic. Unusual lines, colors, and shapes make the subject look unrealistic. It is often characterized by the use of geometric lines and shapes and bold, bright colors.
Acrylics- Quick drying, plastic polymer pigment used with water.
Additives- The process of adding or joining parts and/or visual elements together to create a painting, collage or sculpture (as opposed to subtractive).
Background- The part of the picture plane that seems to be farthest from the viewer.
Foreground- Part of a two-dimensional artwork that appears to be nearer the viewer or in the “front” of the image. Middle ground and background are the parts of the picture that appear to be farther and farthest away.
Intensity- Also called chroma or saturation; refers to the brightness of a color (a color is full in intensity only when in its pure form and unmixed). Color intensity can be changed by adding black, white, gray or an opposite color on the color wheel.
Middle Ground- Area of a two-dimensional work of art between the foreground (closest to the front) and background (furthest receded).
Mixed Media- An artwork in which more than one type of art material is used.
Nonobjective- Having no recognizable object or subject; also, nonrepresentational.
Watercolor- A transparent pigment used with water. Paintings done with this medium are known as watercolors.
Step #1- After creating a design on a blank piece of paper, you get your silk and trace the design to the silk with a pencil. You aren't allowed to erase on the silk so you have to be careful when tracing. Then once you are finished tracing, you use the black gutta resist to go over the pencil marks. The gutta will not allow paint to go onto the area where you placed it.
Step #2- After you put Gutta resist on your silk, you use watercolors to create your design. I blended the colors together in the sky, starting from yellow then going down to red, with water. Then for the water I used salt and rubbing alcohol along with the blue water paint. Then, when painting I had to make sure not to put too much near the edge because it bleeds really easily, even with the gutta resist.
In this piece, the hardest part of this project would of been the painting. It was the hardest for me because it bled so easily, even with a little amount on your brush. The easiest part of the project would of been creating the design, tracing, and then the gutta. The one thing, however, I would like to change would be the thickness of my name in the middle. I wish the letters were thinker so then it would of been able to paint and put on the gutta.
Analogous Color- Colors that appear next to each other on the color wheel. Analogous colors have one hue in common. For example, blue, blue-green, and blue-violet all contain blue. Also called related colors.
Color- The visual sensation dependent on the reflection or absorption of light from a given surface. An element of art made up of three distinct qualities: hue, intensity, and value.
Complementary Colors- Colors that contrast with one another. Complementary colors are opposite one another on the color wheel.
Cool Colors- The family of colors that includes greens, blues, and violets. Cool colors bring to mind cool things, places, and feelings.
Gutta Resist- Prevents dye from reaching the fabric; it resists the dye.
Intermediate Colors- Colors that are a mixture of a primary and a secondary color. Blue-green, red-orange, and red-violet are examples of intermediate colors.
Primary Colors- Colors that are mixed to make all other colors. The primary colors are red, yellow, and blue.
Secondary Color- A color made by mixing two primary colors. An equal mixture of primary colors. The secondary colors are green, violet, and orange.
Warm Colors- The family of colors that includes reds, yellows, and oranges. Warm colors bring to mind warm things, places, and feelings.
Step #1- Sketch out a design on a piece of printer paper, then once you pick out your piece, you use the elmo to project it onto the smart board. Then trace in onto a big piece of white paper, go over in sharpie, then you trace it from the white piece of paper onto cloth.
Step #2- Once you have traced it onto the cloth, you use hot wax with either a paint brush or tjanting tool to mark the places you want to keep white.
Step #2- Then once you finish waxing, after every time, making sure you have a registration mark on each, you dye at least 10 colors. Then, after you wax what you want to stay the same color, you take a white bucket over to the dye and then put it back in the white bucket after it is colored. Then you take it over to the sink to ring out as much color as you want. Then you take it over to the hanging rack and use a hanger to hang it in the right spot.
Step #3- In the end you wax the whole thing. Then you crinkle in over the trash can to get all of the excess wax off. You can either dunk it in the black paint or just go straight to ironing. I didn't dunk it in the black because I felt like it would ruin my project.
Step #4- You iron your project as many times as needed until all of the wax is off. Changing the top and bottom newspaper as needed.
In this project I felt that my strengths were choosing what color to do next, in order to get to the correct end color that I was looking for. The hardest part for me was that, in the beginning I waxed a lot of things white so then it was harder for me to find things to wax on every color. If I were to change anything about my project would of been the amount of details in the vines and not enough detail in the background, however, overall I am proud of this piece I have created.
Chroma- The purity of a color or its freedom from white or gray.
Color relationships- Also called color schemes or harmonies. The relationships of colors on the color wheel. Basic color schemes include monochromatic, analogous, and complementary
Color Wheel- A circular diagram of the spectrum used to show the relationships between the colors
Contrast- The differences in elements, opposites.
Emphasis- The significance or importance given to an element of design.
Movement- Visual flow through the composition.
Pattern- Repeated colors, lines, shapes, or textures in an artwork. Pattern is a principal of design. Also, a plan or model to be followed when making something.
Repetition- Repetition refers to one object or shape repeated.
Rhythm- The repeating of one or several elements to create movement.
Tint- A color such as pink that is created by mixing a hue with white. Also, a light value of a color.
Tjanting- A tool used in creating batik patterns. (Batik is a wax resist decorative technique used on fabric.) They hold and dispense hot wax in such a way that the artist can control the pattern laid down by the wax with a great deal of precision.
Triad- The three color scheme on the color wheel based on a logical relationship.
Value- The element of art that describes the lightness or darkness of a hue.