Unit 1-Topic B, Is Dreaming Meaningful


Sleep Disorders

Explain both the similarities and differences between Freud’s theory of dreaming and Hobson and McCarley theory of dreaming

Hobson and McCarley (H&M)

Page 64-65

Explain what is meant by psychological and what is meant by biological.

Psychological is to do with the brain when thinking or showing emotions.

Biological is to do with physical aspects (which includes the brain)

Therefore, both psychological and biological is linked together

Explain in your own words what is meant by sensory blockade and movement inhibition

Sensory blockade means during Rem Sleep you can not receive any information coming to the 5 senses

Movement inhibition means during Rem Sleep you could not feel any movement you make

What happens when we stop?

Stages /Phases of Sleep

5 phases

Light sleep



Rem Sleep/Non Rem sleep

Rem: Rapid Eye Movement

When u wake up in REM sleep more likely to remember dream

10 mins rem sleep

Last include 1hr of REM Sleep

Sleep Cycles/ Rhythms

Circadian Clock

Brain activity

Hormone production

Immune system

The Labelled Neuron


Research Methods

Research Methods: (credibility)

Case Study

In depth study about one person or a small group


Qualitative data (main type of data)

Refers to open questions such as asking someone’s opinion

Quantitative data

Refers to closed questions which results in short answers like yes or no

Long time

Case studies do not have hypothesis


Strengths and weakness






Ethics/ Ethical


Page 79:

A: The conscious is when many thoughts are elements from the unconscious are represented in the dream in one symbol. The unconscious is repressed to help someone to forget about/not deal with problems.

B: the idea that a boy from about the age of 4 years old will have unconscious feelings for his mother and want his father out of the way though then fears his father feels guilty too.


2) By receiving letters from his parents as well as messages being included in the letter from his parents

3) Little Hans’ had a dream about a big giraffe and a crumpled one in his room. Little Hans’ said he sat the crumpled one away and toke it away. The big giraffe wasn’t happy so it shouted.

4) Freud’s explanation on the giraffe dream was the big giraffe was his dad, the crumpled one was his mom. He wanted to take his mother away from his father, this shows the Little Hans’ has sexual feelings for his mother and also fears his father’s guilt


3 Methods used in psychoanalysis

Slip of the tongue

Free association

Dream analysis -which you know about

Mini Quiz











TOTAL: 9/10

PAGE 54-57

Page 54

Hypnotism was rejected because the person couldn’t remember the sessions which he thought was important.

Page 55

B) Omar said he dreamt about falling down the stairs. An analyst said this showed his anxiety about his school work

(i) the analyst

(ii) Omar

C) Displacement

Features of dream work



Secondary elaboration

Manifest content is what the dream is said to be about by the dreamer- the story of the dreamer tells

Latent content is the meaning of underlying the dream if the symbol from the manifest content are translated by an analyst they can reveal unconscious thoughts

The dreamer may not remember the exact details of their dream, the dream might be different from the actual dream and what the dreamer said. The dream might not have the same symbol/meaning.

Page 56

They might use secondary elaboration because using muddled ideas from dreamwork to build a whole story. The dreamer will add bits to the dream when telling someone what it is about to try to make the dream make sense

Page 57

This is because if everyone’s unconscious is a personal thing then they will have their own underlying meaning of symbols. However it helps to understand dream analysis if using a general example so one is given here.

Symbols are involved in dreams to help us understand the meaning

He believed that dreams should be analyzed seriously to help reveal what the person’s unconsciousness

Symbol analysis may be not reliable because it might mean something different from you dream

31 August 2016

Explaining Freud using the phrases repression, conscious, desires, unconscious, Sexual issues, mental health, wishes

According to Freud, he was distressed about how little was being done for the mental health issue. He wanted to do better so he started to wonder about the mental health as opposed to the physical health. He then travelled to France and learnt about hypnotism . At the end, he realised that the mind was powerful and it could cause mental health problems.

According to Freud, repression means something being pushed into the unconscious by the conscious mind, though this is not deliberately done which means someone would not know the other side of you

Dream Symbols



Manifest content



Secondary elaboration


Unit Starter

Tripartite Personality

ID: not logical ruled by pleasure principle

EGO: conscious rational part ruled by the reality principle

SUPEREGO: sense of right and wrong;ideal self


Conflicts between ID, EGO, SUPERGO creates anxiety

Psychosexual Stages

Oedipus Conflict

Genetic Sexual Attraction

Genetic relatives do fall in love if they have not grown up together.

Children who were raised together develop a strong sexual disinterest for each other

The westermarck effect


The unconscious- What is in there, what does it do? How do we access what is in there?

Freud thought that a large part of the mind is not accessible and is hidden completely.

What is repression?

Repression means something being pushed into the unconscious by the conscious mind, though this is not deliberately done which means someone would not know what “dark secrets” they were repressing .

Get a Freudian Iceberg image from Google

What freud thought about the mentally ill.

Freud was very distressed how little was being done for the mentally ill. Freud wanted to do better and started to wonder about mental health as opposed to physical health. He travelled to France and learned about hypnotism because the person could not then remember sessions, which he thought was important. Nonetheless, he realised that the mind was powerful and could cause mental health problems

Freud’s psychosexual stages - you can find a table online

The Oedipus complex

The idea that a boy from about the age of four years old will have unconscious feelings for his mother and want his father out of the way, though then fears his father and feels guilty too.


What is Psychology?

Psychology is...

Behaviour in different situations

The human psyche (mind)


The way we perceive information

Types of Psychologists:

Forensic (murder, investigation, criminal)




Academia, Research and Teaching

Occupational (Work)

Counselling (people going through hard time)

Neuro (brain)

Sport and Exercise

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