Discuss the Malaysia perspective and International perspectives in conservation and management challenges for sustainable forest.
What is Sustainable Forest Management?
- Sustainable forest management (SFM) is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development.
- Sustainable forest management has to keep the balance between three main pillars: ecological, economic and socio-cultural.
- Successfully achieving sustainable forest management will provide integrated benefits to all, ranging from safeguarding local livelihoods to protecting the biodiversity and ecosystems provided by forests, reducing rural poverty and mitigating some of the effects of climate change.
Malaysia Perspective in Conservation and Management Challenges for Sustainable Forest.
- The progress of the concept of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) is dynamic and its success or failure during implementation can be evaluated in different ways.
- In a detailed survey in four Forest Management Units (FMUs) in Sabah, the current implementation of SFM at the FMU level was assessed based on the triple perspective typology of stakeholder theory.
- This approach encompasses conceptual, corporate and stakeholder centric point of view.
- The conceptual perspective explores the SFM concept and how it relates to the FMU holder – stakeholder interaction at the FMU level, the corporate perspective examined how the FMU holders put the concept into practise and address their stakeholders, while the stakeholder perspective analyses how the stakeholders attempt to accomplish their claims and interests through the corporate-centric (FMU holders) at the management level.
- The stakeholder analysis provides the platform for stakeholder identification, categorisation and their general perception and behaviour towards the overall performance of SFM objectives. The Stakeholder Relation Management (SRM) that integrates the FMU holders and stakeholder participation under the SFM concept were also identified.
- Different FMU holders are engaged with distinct objectives to be achieved, which determine their direct relationship with the stakeholders.
- The stakeholders were attributed to static and dynamic groups, which are determined by their existence, claims and interests, and involvement in various SFM programs and activities at the FMU level.
- They provided distinguished preference and agreement toward various issues and characteristics related to SFM objectives, implementation and stakeholder participation at the management level.
- Most of the respondents of the multi-interest stakeholder group agreed with SFM main contributions towards the elements of environmental objectives, followed by economic objectives and elements of social objectives.
- The approach for SFM assessment based on the different lenses of conceptual, corporate and stakeholder centric provides complementary evidence on the pragmatic implementation of SFM at the forest management level.
International Perspectives in Conservation and Management Challenges for Sustainable Forest
- Canada’s National Forest Strategy 1998–2003 (CCFM 1998) states a goal for sustainable forests that amounts to a deﬁnition of sustainable forest management:“Our goal is to maintain and enhance the long-term health of our forest ecosystems, for the beneﬁt of all living things both nationally and globally, while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for the beneﬁt of present and future generations.”
- Although the focus is on forest health, the concept of a holistic approach to forest management that involves both the present and the future is clear.
- Common to most deﬁnitions of SFM is the achievement of current environmental, economic and social goals for a forested area, without impairing either future interests or other ecosystems.
- Sustained yield forestry is a more limited concept, primarily concerned with sustainable production of timber and with little attention being paid to other environmental or social values.
- Sustainable development is, however, far broader than SFM, encompassing forestry and all other sectors.
- Integrated resource management (IRM) is a precursor of SFM that empha-sized consideration of all natural resources, but did not emphasize ecosystem integrity and interactions with social systems, although more recent deﬁnitions of IRM and integrated watershed management.
- Ecosystem management emphasizes the interaction of environmental, economic and social systems and, when applied in forests, is largely synonymous with SFM, although some would argue that it is simply one of many forms of management that can be undertaken within the framework of SFM.
- Adaptive management is a more speciﬁc tool for scientiﬁc experimentation on an operational scale that can assist in achieving SFM if used correctly.
- Environmental management systems can focus operations towards SFM with a cycle of continuous improvement, laid out in the ISO 14000 series.
- Land-use planning is a necessary basis for SFM, and public participation helps to ensure fuller consideration of social aspects.
- Sustainable forest management is philosophically rooted in the concepts of forest stewardship, ecological stewardship and the land ethic, which emphasize caring for the land and conserving natural values.
- Sustainable forest management incorporates many utilitarian, anthropocentric concepts and more biocentric perspectives, e.g., that ecosystem, species and genetic diversity must be maintained even if no utilitarian value is apparent.
- Despite these difﬁculties, or maybe because of them, sustainable forest management has become a fashionable term that is widely used but often lacks the support of rigorous science. This is unfortunate, as there is growing pressure on forest managers to demonstrate that they are managing the forests for which they are responsible in a sustainable fashion.
- In so doing, they will need to be more transparent than hitherto, with any assumptions that they make being documented and tested and all results being submit-ted for rigorous review and auditing.