Real World Examples: Cancer, Alzheimer's, Heart Disease
Cancer can be caused by a genetic mutation, often correlated with the misfolding of proteins. There is a variety of different mutations that lead to different cancers; genetic mutations lead to protein misfolding. When proteins are not correctly assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum stress increases within the cell. Homeostasis can no longer be maintained in the cell, and large groups of dysfunctioning cells can make tissues lose function. Cells that cannot fix their proteins will shut down and no longer work correctly. A specific example of cancer caused by incorrect sequencing of proteins would be breast cancer. Many women and sometimes men are born with a gene increases the likeliness of getting breast cancer. Cells with DNA to create proteins that do not work efficiently leads to the development of tumors within the breast as the cells are still identified as cells, but they are shut down.
Alzheimer's disease occurs when highly soluble neuronal proteins folding incorrectly with the covalent bonding and other properties of amino acid sequencing. Without correctly functioning neuronal proteins, individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's forget important details in regards to their own life. As more cells reproduce with binary fission more and more cells within the brain do not work properly to maintain homeostasis and memory function.
Heart Disease coincides with the personal choice of eating mass quantities of fatty foods as well genetic predisposition. Due to the fact that covalent bonds can be made in a variety of different ways its possible to make many different types of molecules. These covalent bonds can be formed naturally in living organisms within their cellular structure. One example that agrees with a cause of heart diseases would be cholesterol, which is a leading factor in heart disease.
Statistics/ Quantitative Data
Amounts Spent Yearly on Research (U.S.) Approx
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tests for diseases w/ covalent bonding and protein folding
Using Yeast to Further Examine Proteins
Examining yeast cells can help understand neurodegenerative diseases caused by the misfolding of proteins such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. Yeast is highly available and cheap to buy in large quantities, and it can be easily genetically mutated. Different genomes and genetic mutations can be applied to different groups of yeasts to compare. By doing so, scientists can look at different parts of the yeast cell as it is easy to examine. They can view the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, and nucleus to see the manufacturing of proteins in instances of mutated DNA. Viewing yeast although not quite alike a human brain cell can help people understand how the process of proteins is made when mutations are present; yeast provides a more close up and direct examination.