The art of Noises- Russolo
"Futurist Orchestra" will be arranged through 'families of noises'. Classical instruments can no longer correctly express emotion of composers after the industrial boom and all the noises that the ear is subject to daily. Sound, estranged from life, is always musical. Noise holds innumerable surprises.
Varese- The Liberation of Sound
This principle focuses on organising sound or 'noise'. Called for a new medium of expression (we now have oscillators) to build a new sound. Varese fought for his right to make music with "any sound and all sounds". Varese poses the question, what is music?
Acousmatics- Pierre Schaeffer.
The principle of acousmatics is devoted entirely to listening. A sonorous object is a sound that is recognised in its own merit: without reference to a subject or source from which it came or where it is being directed to. The study of listening for the sake of hearing the sounds, active listening. “Pure listening”. Disassociation from seeing and hearing. They are two different things but we rely on our eyes more than our ears. Sonorous object : Not the violin, not the tape, but the sound itself unrelated to any other factors. ‘Noise art’. Devotion to listening and listening alone, to discover paths from sonorous to musical. Why shouldn’t sonorous sounds be treated as musical?
What is considered to be noise and what is considered to be music is heavily debated. These authors are all fighting for the right to use noise in making and as (an alternative to) music.
Eno wanted to use music in a different way- as part of the ambience of his life- a continuous surrounding. The development of technology allowed him and others the ability to 'compose sound' and make music to "swim in, float in, to get lost inside". People who use music while they work such as painters and writers first enjoyed this music. "Ambient music" is designed to be a background feature, to induce calm and a space to think and be as ignorable as it is interesting.
"A musical score is a statement about organisation; it is a set of devices for organising behaviour towards producing sound". In this chapter Eno discusses different approaches to composing and performance. 'Classical' music scores dictate, instruct and to some extent limit the creative possibilities for the musicians involved with playing the piece. The score of Paragraph 7 of 'The Great Learning by Cornelius Cardew gives some instructions and limitations to the performers but how the piece sounds (in theory) will differ vastly each time it is performed because of all the varying factors at play: "this variety is really the substance of the music". Eno argues for a view of musical development as a process of generating new 'hybrids', and that organisation must 'become current'.