Ireland - Joyce's unique relationship with his home country leads him to write about numerous different aspects of Irish culture. Throughout his works, Joyce explores the need for Irish independence, the constant search for a place in the world from the island, and the benefits and downfalls of Ireland's strict Christian worldview.
Religion - Joyce largely opposed the austere religion of Ireland, and religious extremism is framed as oppressive.
Need for Escape - Joyce represents the need to escape circumstances like routine, oppressive religion, and a lack of individuality. Ireland is often used as the background and symbol of a place where the protagonist feels trapped.
Death - Joyce portrays death as the classic great equalizer of mankind, but he also points out that the dead can interact with the living by weighing on their minds with their contrasting state of existence or non-existence.
Joyce's Writing Style
Stream of Consciousness - This technique of mimicking the chaos of actual thoughts appears very often in Joyce's works. This method of revealing characters' intimate, unfiltered thoughts helps the reader quickly grasp the protagonist's motives and empathize.
Imagery - Joyce uses powerful imagery to give readers crisp descriptions of his stories' settings—usually urban Ireland.
Personification - Joyce often personifies objects in the environment, portraying them as observing the characters in some way or feeling some kind of emotion to set a mood.
Allusion - Joyce alludes to both classic mythology and Christian stories and teachings to provide readers with a foundation to begin examining his works with the referenced material in mind.
Ulysses - The story of a Jewish man venturing home. The title and many events in the story allude to the Greek hero Odysseus (Ulysses in Latin) and his famous journey home.
Dubliners - A collection of short stories with various themes. This work includes "Araby" and "The Dead."
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man - A story that traces the protagonist's growth and individual development from childhood.
Finnegans Wake - A very difficult work written by Joyce at the end of his life. This piece is written in a complex stream of consciousness style with much linguistic experimentation that obscures the true plot.