The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains
It included all of what are now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, plus parts of Montana and Wyoming
Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the Pacific Ocean
In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the treaty.
Mountain Men in Oregon
Fur Traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country
They came to trap beavers, whose skin was in high need in Europe.
Beginning in the 1830s, the mountain men carved out several east-to-west passages that played a vital role in western settlement.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty
America gained access to the pacific ocean and the Oregon Territory
Oregon and Manifest Destiny - Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
The first settlers in the Oregon country were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa
They brought measles and were killed by Cayuse indians
Along the Oregon Trail
The pioneers who came to Oregon were called emigrants
The journey was 2,000 miles
Their wagons were nicknamed prairie schooners
America Seeks its Manifest Destiny
Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should to be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy. In the 1800s that vision changed
In 1819 John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River flowing to the sea.
In the 1840s, New York newspaper editor John O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny" to expand.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
James K. Polk supported this decision.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight refers to the line of latitude the Americans believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?
Polk believed that America should control all of Oregon and Clay didn't have a strong opinion.
Statehood for Florida and Texas
How did Florida become a state?
Spain transferred Florida to the United States.
Florida became a state on July 17, 1821
Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Florida had an appointed territorial governor.
Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1787
The Territory Grows
In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that about 48,000 people lived there
Enslaved people made up about one half of Florida's population
Statehood for Florida
Florida became the 27th state on March 3, 1845
What caused the Florida population to grow
The fertile lands spread
Mexico won its independence in 1821 from Spain
The non-Naive American population of Texas was about 3,000
Most of the people in Texas in 1821 were Tejanos
The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's
Texans had Davy Crockett, William B. Travis, and Jim Bowie
The battle lasted 13 long days
Texas Declares its Independence
March 2, 1836 Texas declared independence from Mexico
They established the Republic of Texas
They made Sam Houston commander in chief of the Texan forces
The Lone Star Republic
In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president
Mirabeau Lamar was vice president
Texas becomes a state
Southerners favored Texas annexation, but Northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union
Texas was annexed in 1845
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
Because the government didn't want to inflame the slavery issue or risk war with Mexico
War With Mexico
How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
It made the trip easier by avoiding sand hills and dry rugged areas allowing more people to come to New Mexico
The New Mexico Territory
In the early 1800s, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories
It included all of the land that is now the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming
William Becknell was the first settler in Santa Fe
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico
Becknell influenced the American Settlement By making the Santa Fe Trail and turning it into a trading route
California’s Spanish Culture
Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700s
The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life
President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico
After Mexico refused to sell the lands, Polk planned to gain them through war
The two nations disagreed about where the Texas-Mexico border was
A War Plan
Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals
First, the United States would drive Mexican forces out of Texas. Second, it would seize New Mexico and California. Finally, American forces would advance into Mexico and capture the capital, Mexico City
Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising
Mexico still refused to surrender, even though it had lost New Mexico, California, and Texas
Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
With Oregon and the former Mexican territories under the American flag, the dream of Manifest Destiny had been realized
What did America gain from the Mexican War
America gained Texas, New Mexico, and California
California and Utah
How did the discovery of gold help California?
The gold made people move to California to get rich quick
California Gold Rush
When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches
Americans made up about 80 percent of the forty-niners
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios citizens of the United States
The Life of a Forty-Niner
As people rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities
Most forty-niners had no experience in mining
Gold Rush Society
Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women
Economic and Political Progress
Many people who had arrived looking for gold stayed to farm or run a business
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities
The gold rush caused cities to pop up over night which caused cities to grow In Utah Mormons, or members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, were building a new community and fulfilling their vision of the godly life
A Religious Refuge in Utah
IN UTAH MORMONS, OR MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS, WERE BUILDING A NEW COMMUNITY AND FULFILLING THEIR VISION OF THE GODLY LIFE
The Mormons Move On
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakenings of the 1830s and 1840s
The founder of the Mormon Church was Joseph Smith, a New Englander living in western New York
Smith said that he had received visions that led him to build a new church. He began preaching Mormon ideas in 1830
A Haven in the Desert
The Mormon migration began in 1846. About 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in American history
The Mormons' route became known as the Mormon Trail and served as a valuable route to the western United States
The Mormons staked a claim on the dry, wild land they called Deseret
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another