Mali By shelby reid

Location: Mali is in west Africa

A picture of the country mali

1.Geographic study begins with the location of places on earth. Places have absolute location that pinpoints them on the earth and relative locations that place each location in respect to other locations.

2. Mali is bordered by Algeria to the northeast, Niger to the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west.

3. Mali's capital is Bamako. Bamako is located on the Niger River.

The city of Mali, Bamako
Mali's school, they have zero heat and air so they don't stay in school for long, they have about three to two hours of school, because it's so hot.
The Dogon Tribe church made out of dirt
Mountain homes it's hard to see far off.
A home made out of straw

4. Mali is located on the African continent.

A map of Mali

5. Mali's landscape is mostly a savanna grassland that rolls into higher plateaus as you move north. Rugged hills with elevations that reach upwards of 3,280 ft (1,000 m) dot the northeast.

Approximately 65% of the country is covered by desert or semi-desert.

The lowest point of the country is the Senegal River at 75 ft (23 m); the highest point of Mali is Hombori Tondo at 3,789 ft (1,155 m).

The largest rivers in Mali are the Niger and Senegal. Considered to be Mali's lifeblood (its source of food, drinking water, irrigation and transportation) the Niger River snakes through roughly 2,600 miles (4,180 km) of western Africa.

6. ~ Mali's climate is a dry land-locked country of northwestern Africa.

The country it's self is very dry.

~It is very close to the Tropic of Cancer and thus enjoys tropical climate.

Different waves of how the heat goes up and down

~Mali has distinct summers and winter months.

Capital of Mali, Bamako
A dry desert barely any animals live here

7. Countries that border Mali are:Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania, Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, and the Côte d'Ivoire

The countries that border Mali

8. Lake Chad, Chari river, The Niger River

The Niger River

The first video is about how the people in Mali work.

The second video is about a marriage ceremony.

B. Place

A picture of the Niger River

B. Place. Mali is a former French colony (also known as French Sudan) and the desert, nomadic north was sort of artificially attached to the agricultural, pastoralist south. ... Below the Niger, Mali is agricultural, growing rice, millet, corn, cotton, peanuts and sorghum in addition to smaller quantities of vegetables for market.

1. A place's absolute location is defined with latitude and longitude lines. This is its exact location. The geography theme of location can also deal with relative location. Relative location means how a place is related or connected to other places through water, land, or technology.

How they find gold in Mali

2. Mali has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone being most widely exploited. Mali is estimated to have in excess of 17,400 tonnes of uranium (measured + indicated + inferred). In 2012, a further uranium mineralized north zone was identified.

Fula people
Bambara people
Tuareg people

3. In the east, Songhay, Bozo, and Dogon people predominate, while the Fula people, formerly nomadic, have settled in patches across the nation. Tuareg and Maure peoples continue a largely nomadic desert culture, across the north of the nation. The interaction of these communities (along with dozens of other smaller ethnicities) have created a Malian culture, marked by heterogeneity, as well as syntheses where these traditions intermix.

98% Muslim
Christian 2%
Animist with Islam 100%

4.There's a well-known saying in Mali that the country is "98% Muslim, 2% Christian and 100% animist", with Islam absorbing traditional practices and allowing people to retain connections with their customary spirituality – providing a formula for religious tolerance.

Christmas in Mali
Korité (end of Ramadan)

5. Nowhere are Mali’s many distinct cultures more proudly displayed than during the country’s numerous festivals. A large percentage of Mali holidays take place in February, including Segou’s Festival on the Niger and Timbuktu’s Desert Festival, two of the country’s biggest celebrations. During one of Mali’s most unique events, all the residents of Djenné descends upon the Great Mosque to help apply fresh mud to the community’s most famous landmark.

6. They are a semi-presidential republic.

Facts: Absolute monarchy- A form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, I.e., without any laws, constitution,or legally organized oposition.

Anarchy- a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.

Athoritarian- A form of government in which state athority is imposed onto many aspects of citizens lives.

Human environment interaction

Human-Environment Interaction-The major environmental problem in Mali is the increasing desertification of the country. Soil erosion, deforestation, and loss of pastureland pose additional problems for the environment. Mali also has an inadequate water supply: only 74% of city dwellers and 61% of people living in rural areas have access to pure water. The country has 60 cu km of renewable water resources, of which 97% is used for farming and 1% is used for industrial purposes. Mali's cities produce about 0.4 million tons of solid waste.

The nation's wildlife is threatened by drought, poaching, and the destruction of the environment. Mali has a national park and four animal reserves that cover a total of 808,600 ha (1,998,100 acres), as well as six forest reserves covering 229,400 ha (566,900 acres). In addition, the Sahel has an elephant reserve of 1,200,000 ha (2,965,000 acres) and a giraffe reserve of 1,750,000 ha (4,324,000 acres). However, the authorities lack the means to prevent poaching of protected animals or cutting down of trees for firewood. In 2001, 13 of Mali's mammal species and 6bird species were endangered. There were also 5 species of plants threatened with extinction. Threatened species include the addax, cheetah, and barbary sheep. The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.

1. Human-Environment Interaction-No other species that has lived on our planet, as per our knowledge to this date, has such a profound effect on the environment as humans. Humans have adapted to the environment in ways that have allowed them to dominate all other species on Earth. Humans have also achieved what no other species have been capable of doing (at least to such a radical extent): modifying the planet to attain their goals of living. Thus, human-environment interaction needs special emphasis and has been classified as one of the five themes of geography. It involves three distinct aspects, dependency, adaptation, and modification. Dependency explores the ways in which humans are dependent on nature for a living. For example, in India, farmers across the country wait for the monsoons to arrive for the successful growth of their rain-fed crops. If monsoons are late, or the rains are insufficient, droughts and food crisis might create havoc in the highly populated country. Adaptation relates to how humans modify themselves, their lifestyles and their behavior to live in a new environment with new challenges. The different types of clothing invented by humans is one of the finest examples of how humans adapted to varying environmental conditions since the early days. While people in the cold countries adorned wool and fur clothing, those in the warmer countries adhered to cotton. The third aspect of the human-environment interaction and the most important one that allowed humans to “conquer” the world is the modification of the environment for his comfortable living. Humans built dams to water their fields in the dry season. They invented air coolers and air heaters to modify the air temperatures of the environment they inhabited. Humans also tamed the wild animals for their use, converted large tracts of dense forests to human-dominated settlements, and developed automobiles and airplanes that shortened distances between places. It is this final aspect of the human-environment interaction, the modification of the environment, that has also created huge problems in the earth today. Global warming and climate change, mass extinctions of wild species, high levels of environmental pollution, etc., have all resulted from the drastic environmental modifications triggered by the human race.

2.Crops grown for domestic consumption include rice, millet, sorghum and maize. Livestock farming (cattle, sheep and goats) is practised across the Sahel region. Cash crops include fruits such as mangoes and guavas, wheat and groundnuts/peanuts. Mali exports both peanut oil and shelled peanuts.


3.Four-fifths of Mali’s people work in agriculture, mainly in subsistence farming. The country also has many cottage industries, such as those making handicrafts. Mali is especially renowned for its wood carving, pottery, baskets and textiles. These are mainly made for the domestic market, but some items are now being exported.


4. Yes, Critically Endangered: Addax (Addax nasomaculatus).


Endangered: Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Dama Gazelle (Gazella dama). Slender-horned Gazelle (Gazella leptoceros). ...


Vulnerable: African Elephant (Loxodonta africana). Barbary Sheep (Ammotragus lervia). Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).


5. Environmental issues in Mali include desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, drought, and inadequate supplies of potable water. Deforestation is an especially serious and growing problem. According to the Ministry of the Environment, Mali’s population consumes 6 million tons of wood per year for timber and fuel. To meet this demand, 4,000 square kilometres of tree cover are lost annually, virtually ensuring destruction of the country’s savanna woodlands. To help sustain Mali's ever-growing problem the government has assigned 3.7 percent of Mali’s total land area protected. It has ratified international environmental agreements pertaining to biodiversity, climate change, desertification, Endangered species, and Ozone Layer Protection.

Region- An area on the planet that is composed of places with a unifying characteristic is a region, one of the five themes of geography. A region is defined by its uniform physical or human characteristics. A region whose boundaries are formally defined is known as a formal region. For example, metropolitan cities, districts, provinces, countries, and continents can be regarded as a formal region that is unified by a common political entity. A functional region usually encompasses a central point with defined boundaries and the area around it that is connected via a well-developed network of transportation and communication systems that facilitates the movement of people, goods, and ideas within that system. A large metropolitan city including its suburbs like the New York City in the United States, Mumbai in India, Tokyo in Japan, or Beijing in China, can be regarded as functional regions. The third type of region is vernacular region. When closely placed in the world have unifying characteristics, we tend to imagine these places bound by an “imaginary border.” Thus, though physical maps do not formally define the boundaries of such regions, we tend to create “mental maps” of such regions.For example, we often group the countries in the Arabian Peninsula as the “Middle-East region”, though such a region is never mentioned in the physical maps of the world.

2. Education-Public education in Mali is, in principle, provided free of charge and is compulsory for nine years between the ages of 7 and 16. The system encompasses six years of primary education beginning at age seven, followed by six years of secondary education, generally divided into two three-year cycles.

The kids that go to school in Mali

3. 15.3 million (2013).Population density (people per sq. km) in Mali was last measured at 14.42 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers.

4. 478,800 mi²

5. 715.13 USD (2013)

6. Males- 58.2 females- 58.3

7. 33.4%

8. The climate in Mali is hot with average temperatures ranging between 24° and 32°C. The amount of rainfall also varies throughout the year. The northern region of Mali experiences very less rainfall, whereas the southern part experiences heavy downpour, which lasts from June to October.

Central Mali mostly receives rainfall between June and August. Annual rainfall measures around 1,400 mm in the south, 1,120 mm at Bamako and 127 mm in the northern part of the country.

Movement- The Earth is full of movement and in a human-dominated planet, movement primarily refers to the translocation of human beings, their goods, and their ideas from one end of the planet to another. Thus, the theme of movement becomes an important part of geographical studies. Movement deals with studies of population immigration, emigration, and distribution in the countries of the world. It is this physical movement of people that has allowed the human race to inhabit all the continents and islands of the world and also explore the depths of the oceans and land on the moon. Another aspect of movement is the transport of goods from one place on the Earth to another. In other words, it is the study of human trade, a practice that has shaped human civilizations and cultures since the time the first Homo sapiens emerged. The third and an extremely vital aspect of the movement theme is the movement of ideas. It is this interchange of ideas between the nations of the world that allows the unification of the human civilization and promotes its growth and prosperity. Thus, the theme of movement forms an integral part of geographical studies.

2.Cotton (representing 10.7% of total exports)


Live animals (representing 5.9% of total exports)

Boilers, machinery, nuclear reactors, etc. (representing 1.5% of total exports)

Repairing a cotton machine

Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc. (representing 1.5% of total exports)

Oil Mali makes and ships it
Tractor from Mali

3. The current flag was adopted on March 1, 1961. The original flag was adopted on April 4, 1959, when Mali joined the Mali Federation. This flag was the same, except the golden stripe had a human stick figure, a kanaga, in black, with arms raised to the sky. The figure was removed due to the opposition, in a country whose population is 90% Muslim, of Islamic fundamentalists[1] (see Aniconism in Islam, the belief against making pictures of the human figure).[2]

The flag adopted in 1959 for the federation was an imitation of the Flag of Ghana, but following the style of the French Tricolore. It was charged with a black emblem known as a kanaga, a stylized human figure. The colors were intended to reflect a unity with other African nations. After the two countries split in 1960, the flag was kept for use in Mali until March 1, 1961, when the kanaga emblem was dropped.

Mali's flag

4. In early 1959, the Sudanese Republic and Senegal formed the Federation of Mali. On 31 March 1960 France agreed to the Federation of Mali becoming fully independent. On 20 June 1960 the Federation of Mali became an independent country and Modibo Keïta became its first President.

5. Of the numerous empires that developed and disappeared on the African continent, Mali was one of the first south of the Sahara to capture the attention of both the Islamic and European worlds. Mali also illustrates the range and diversity of historical sources, written and nonwritten, that may be brought to bear on the reconstruction of empires. Mali is an example of an empire that used culture, ideology, and language (Mande) to dominate an expanding territory. The grassland and semiarid region included virtually all of what was known as the savanna, or “Sudan,” and the Sahel, from the Sahara’s edge to the forest’s edge in West Africa. The empire’s manipulation of technology (iron and horses) and ecology (beneficial climatic shifts) emphasizes two of the possible means by which smaller polities may be integrated into the structure of a larger empire. At its height in the fourteenth century C.E. the Mali Empire covered an area greater than 24,000 square kilometers (9000 square miles), and it influenced, through trade connections, an even larger portion of West Africa for several centuries.


6. In Mali their popular transportation is a donkey and the communication is the minimum of cellphones they have.

What the phones look like in Mali
Used as transportation
What they use to communicate with others
Created By
Shelby Reid


Created with images by emilio labrador - "Timbuktu, Mali, W. Africa" • comcinco - "Casa con jardín" • TREEAID - "The edges of the Sahara desert" • University of Exeter - "Uranium-mineral" • James St. John - "Amethyst (Brazil) 6" • James St. John - "Kaolinite (Cretaceous; Twiggs County, Georgia, USA)" • Syeda Amina Trust® - "GAZA Crisis July 2014" • Makadaka - "AdditionalDogon (13 of 19)" • Nathan Laurell - "Kids running from school to meet us" • Just chaos - "Addax" • nilsrinaldi - "Chimpanzee yawning" • fvfavo - "Elephant" • USACE HQ - "USACE kicks off construction of educational facilities in Mali" • Nathan Laurell - "A full classroom" • Nathan Laurell - "Kids running from school to meet us" • Free Grunge Textures - - "Mali Grunge Flag" • Sikachu! - "Olive Oil" • Free Grunge Textures - - "Mali Grunge Flag" • mrsdkrebs - "2013-03-02 Rhyme"

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