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药品供应链必回迁美国,中共经济哀鸿遍野 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:The Washington Post华盛顿邮报

作者:Laurie McGinley 和 Carolyn Y. Johnson

翻译:毛毛猫猫

简评:海阔天空

简评:

中共国自从加入世界贸易组织,就像一个八爪鱼一样深深地浸淫到世界经济体系中,全球资本家在利润的驱逐下,争先恐后地将供应链转移到中共国。中共国出卖人权、出卖环境、依靠全世界最大规模的奴工建立其产品竞争优势,各国却被中共国深度绑架。此次冠状病毒,美国人猛然发现,不仅美国使用的许多药物都是在海外生产的,而且这些药物的关键成份(以及用于制造它们的化学原材料)也都是在中共国和其他国家大量生产的。美国危难之际,中共国竟然威胁要切断美国的药品供应链来要挟美国。这无疑对美国脆弱的供应链敲醒了警钟。4月30日,众议院共和党领袖凯文·麦卡锡(共和党-加州)在周一的新闻发布会上表示,需要一个“大胆的、放松管制的议程”来恢复美国的制造业。麦卡锡说,他与专家和众议院共和党人讨论了世界和美国在制造业上对中国的依赖。从Gibson女士的深入调查到班农先生的大声疾呼,到美国众议员共和党领袖呼吁政策上的大胆放松,美国供应链的迁移势不可挡。离开了美国以及世界的巨大市场,能想到中共国的民不聊生、百业萧条、消费冷冻、繁荣不在。不禁感慨中国人民生之艰难!

原文:

Coronavirus raises fears of U.S. drug supply disruptions

冠状病毒疫情引起美国人民对本国药品供应链中断的担忧

Many pharmaceuticals’ active ingredients are made in China

许多药物的活性成份是中共国制造的

Federal officials, pharmaceutical companies and public health experts are closely monitoring the coronavirus outbreak in China, which is a major producer of drug ingredients. (iStock)

联邦政府官员,制药公司和公共卫生专家正在密切监控中共国冠状病毒疫情的爆发,他们同时也意识到中共国目前是世界上最主要的成份药的生产国(iStock)。

The Food and Drug Administration is stepping up its monitoring of the drug supply for potential shortages, including 20 products that may be at risk due to the coronavirus outbreak that has shut down much of China and is raising concerns about the nation’s convoluted and highly outsourced pharmaceutical supply chain.

美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)正在加强对潜在的药品供应短缺的监控,这其中包括20种可能由于这次的冠状病毒爆发而导致的中国生产链的大面积停摆而处于供应短缺危险之中的产品,并引起了人们对美国复杂且高度外包的药品供应链的担忧。

The crisis highlights a growing vulnerability: Not only are many medications used in the United States manufactured overseas, but critical ingredients — and the chemicals used to make them — also are overwhelmingly made in China and other countries. The supply chain’s roots now run so deep that it’s difficult to fully anticipate where critical shortages could emerge.

这场危机凸显了日益严重的美国药品供应链的脆弱:不仅在美国使用的许多药物都是在海外生产的,而且这些药物的关键成份(以及用于制造它们的化学原材料)也都是在中共国和其他国家大量生产的。 现在,医药领域供应链的触角已经延伸的太远,以至于很难完全预测可能出现严重短缺的环节。

Rosemary Gibson, author of the book “China Rx” and a senior adviser at the Hastings Center, a bioethics think tank, said China has a “global choke hold” on the chemical components that make up key ingredients.

罗斯玛丽•吉布森(Rosemary Gibson)是《China Rx》一书的作者,也是生物伦理智库-——黑斯廷斯中心的高级顾问。她说,中共国在构成某些药品的关键成份之化学原材料领域具有“举足轻重”的地位。

“In the age of a few clicks in a keyboard and items get delivered, we overlook where products come from and the components to make them,” she said. “We are dependent on others, and they will keep medicines for their own people.”

“以往我们在键盘上敲击几下就能买到我们想要的药品,我们从没有关心过这些买来的药品的来源和成份,”她说: “我们依赖于从中共国进口的药物,而当某天我们特别需要这些药物的时候,中共国却告诉我们:他们将为自己的人民保留这些药物,不能出口给我们”。

Rep. Anna G. Eshoo (D-Calif.), chairwoman of the Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health, has similar concerns. “The red lights are blinking,” she said. “It’s one thing for China to make athletic wear for us, but to depend on them for our drug supply? That’s not acceptable.”

隶属于美国能源和商业委员会的健康小组委员会主席,众议员Anna G. Eshoo(D-Calif)也有类似的担忧。 她说:“红灯已对我们亮起。” “让中共国为我们制造运动服是一回事,但是要完全依靠它们来供应我们药品则是另一回事。 后者是不可接受的”。

The FDA said that no companies are reporting drug shortages linked to the coronavirus. But in a sign of its efforts to get ahead of any problems, an FDA spokeswoman said the agency has contacted 180 China-based prescription-drug manufacturers asking them to evaluate their supply chains and remind them they’re required to notify FDA of any coming disruptions. Many U.S. drug companies buy Chinese-made active pharmaceutical ingredients, called APIs, in bulk, insulating themselves against a supply disruption for weeks, months or even a year.

美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)表示,至今都没有收到有关公司报告与冠状病毒有关的药物发生短缺。 但为了防患于未然,该机构的发言人说,FDA已与180家有中共国背景的处方药制造商联系,要求他们评估其目前的供应链状况,并提醒他们如果未来有任何生产被中断的可能,都要通知FDA。许多美国制药公司都会大量购买中共国生产的活性药成份(称为API),从而避免数以周,月甚至一年的药品供应被中断。

The 20 products the agency is watching especially closely use raw materials that all come from China, the FDA said.

美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)说,该机构正在密切关注的20种医药产品全部使用了来自中共国的原材料。

With the course of the outbreak unpredictable, and information scarce on when Chinese factories will resume normal operations, FDA commissioner Stephen Hahn warned that “the outbreak will likely impact the medical product supply chain, including potential disruptions to supply or shortages of critical medical products” in the United States.

由于此次疫情属于突然爆发,并且缺乏有关中共国工厂何时能恢复正常营运的信息,美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)的专员-斯蒂芬·哈恩(Stephen Hahn)警告说:“疫情可能会影响美国的医疗产品供应链,包括潜在的供应中断或关键医疗产品短缺”。

The drug supply chain is opaque and complex — for the most part, consumers and even hospitals can’t find out where their drugs or the ingredients that go into them are made. Even the FDA has acknowledged it doesn’t know the amount of drug ingredients being shipped from China.

药品的供应链在很多情况下是不透明的和复杂的。大多数情况是,消费者甚至医院都不清楚他们的药品或制成药品的原料是从哪里来的。甚至美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)也承认,它们也不清楚从中国运来的成份药物的数量。

“We cannot determine with any precision the volume of API that China is actually producing, or the volume … entering the U.S. market,” Janet Woodcock, director of FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research told Congress last fall.

美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)的药品评估与研究中心主任珍妮特·伍德考克(Janet Woodcock)去年秋天对国会表示:“我们无法精确地确定进入美国市场的由中共国实际生产的活性药成份(API)的数量。

The agency does track where factories are, and reported last year that about 14 percent of the facilities that make active pharmaceutical ingredients are in China.

美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)的药品评估与研究中心确实追踪了这些药品生产厂家的位置,并于去年的报告中说,生产活性药物成份(API)的这些厂家约有14%在中共国。

The number of factories situated in China has risen sharply in recent years due to low-cost labor, less stringent environmental regulations and the need for large factory sites, Woodcock told Congress.

伍德考克告诉国会,由于廉价的劳动力,宽松的环境法规以及对大型工厂厂场地的需求,中共国的这类工厂的数量在近年急剧增加。

Eshoo and others complain there isn’t enough publicly available information on the complicated supply chain for drugs. Much of the information is proprietary, and closely held by drug companies and regulators.

Eshoo和其他人抱怨在复杂的药品供应链产业上没有足够的公开信息。很多信息是专有的,并被制药公司和监管机构密切掌握着。

Former FDA chief Scott Gottlieb, at a recent hearing about U.S. preparedness for pandemics, warned not only about U.S. reliance on the active ingredients in drugs but also on their chemical precursors — “lower margin, low-technology starting materials and components that — over time — have become sole sourced in China.” Many of these materials are made in China’s Hubei Provence, the epicenter of coronavirus, he said.

前美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)负责人Scott Gottlieb在最近一场关于美国应对大流行病的预防措施的听证会上警告说,不仅要警惕美国对药物中的活性成份的严重依赖,更要警惕对制造这些活性成份的化学原料的依赖。他指出:“随着时间的流逝,中共国已经成为那些利润较低,技术含量较低的初级原料和成份药的唯一货源地。” 他并说,“其中许多材料就是在这次中共国冠状病毒的爆发的中心——湖北省生产的”。

“We may not even be aware of the full scope of these vulnerabilities,” he added. “In many cases, we don’t have established systems for tracking down to the level of these components. Scott Gottlieb

“我们甚至可能都不知道这些漏洞到底有多大。” Scott Gottlieb 说到,“在许多情况下,我们甚至都没有建立跟踪这些成份药的层级系统。”

There are 44 pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities in Hubei that are approved by the FDA or its European counterpart to make products for the highly regulated U.S. and European Union markets, according to Fiona Barry, associate editor of GlobalData PharmSource, a data and analytics company. Of these, 35 produce active pharmaceutical ingredients, five make finished-dose drugs and four manufacture both.

数据和分析公司——GlobalData PharmSource的副编辑Fiona Barry表示,仅在中共国的湖北省就有44家医药生产工厂,均已获得美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)或其欧盟同行的认可,可以为受到严格监管的美国和欧盟市场生产药品。这其中,有35家可以生产活性药物成份,有5家可以生产成品制剂,有4家这两种都可以生产。

Some lawmakers are focused on getting more information on potential shortages. Legislation introduced by Sens. Susan Collins (R-Maine) and Tina Smith (D-Minn.) would require drug makers to report looming shortages of pharmaceutical ingredients, not just finished products.

一些立法者正专注于搜集更多有关潜在的药品短缺的信息。参议员苏珊·柯林斯(R-Maine)和蒂娜·史密斯(D-Minn.)希望以立法的方式强制药品生产厂家不仅报告制成品的短缺,还要报告成份药的短缺。

“The FDA needs greater visibility into the drug supply chain so that they can better assess risks and potential disruptions,” Collins said in a statement.

柯林斯在一份声明中说:“ 美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)需要对药品的供应链有更深入的了解,以便他们能够更好地评估在药品的供应链环节的潜在的由于生产被中断而带来的风险。”

If the threat from coronavirus subsides quickly, there may be minimal impacts on the pharmaceutical supply chain. But the effects are likely to vary by company; some may have up to a year’s extra supply on hand and multiple factories in multiple countries, while others may have less redundancy built in to their supply chain.

如果此次中共国冠状病毒带来的威胁迅速消退,则对美国的药品供应链的影响可能很小。 但是后果也可能因公司而异; 有些公司可能有多达一年的额外储备,并且在多个国家/地区设有多家工厂,而另一些公司则可能在其供应链中储备了较少的冗余。

Novartis spokesman Eric Althoff said the company had taken steps to prevent shortages, including keeping a safety stockpile and sourcing ingredients from more than one supplier, and doesn’t anticipate a supply chain disruption “for the time being.”

诺华制药的发言人埃里克·阿尔索夫(Eric Althoff)表示,该公司已采取了措施防止供应短缺,包括保留安全库存量和从多个供应商处采购原料,所以他们暂时不会出现供应链中断的情况。

Manjira Ghosh Sharma, a spokesperson for Lupin Ltd., an Indian generic pharmaceutical company, said, “Currently there are no shipments coming out of China and the situation on ground is very dynamic. However, we are comfortably placed with 8 to 10 weeks of key inventory in place.”

印度制药公司-Lupin Ltd的发言人曼吉拉·戈什·夏玛说:“目前没有药品从中共国运出,当地的局势依然很复杂。但是我们已经储备好了8至10周的关键库存。”

On an earnings call in early February, another Indian generic company, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, described the complexity of the supply chain. Some raw materials come almost exclusively from China, Dilip Shanghvi, managing director of Sun said, including antibiotics such as azithromycin, penicillin and cephalosporin. In a sign of how the supply chain can be hard to unravel, he noted that raw materials that were purchased in India might depend on ingredients sourced in China.

在今年2月初的一次公司的内部电话会议上,另一家印度制药公司Sun Pharmaceutical Industries描述了药品供应链的复杂性。Sun Pharmaceutical Industries的公司董事总经理Dilip Shanghvi表示,一些药品的原材料几乎全部来自中共国,包括阿奇霉素,青霉素和头孢菌素等抗生素。为了向大家进一步解释药品供应链的复杂性,他指出,从印度购买的原料药在很大程度上依赖于来源于中共国的成份药。

Some say the drug supply chain is too complicated and goes through too many countries. But Ronald Piervincenzi, chief executive officer of U.S. Pharmacopeia, a nonprofit organization that sets quality standards for drugs, disagreed, arguing that a diverse supply network is a bulwark against disruptions caused by civil unrest, outbreaks and natural disasters like hurricanes.

有人说药品的供应链太复杂了,遍及许多国家。 但是,制定药物质量标准的非营利组织——《美国药典》的首席执行官罗纳德·皮尔文森齐(Ronald Piervincenzi)表示不同意,他认为多样化的供应网络可抵御内乱,疾病暴发和飓风等自然灾害造成的破坏。

“In the event of Hurricane Irene,” he said, referring to a massive storm that affected much of the Caribbean and the East Coast in 2011, “You wouldn’t want all your drugs to be made in New Jersey.”

罗纳德·皮尔文森齐(Ronald Piervincenzi)说:“在一次像2011年的飓风“艾琳”那样的危机中时,您将不会希望所有的药品都是从新泽西州出产的吧。”2011年,飓风“艾琳”波及了美国加勒比海和东海岸的大部分地区。

But it is a problem, he said, that such a big chunk of active ingredients is made in one country — China — and that it us so difficult for American health care providers and consumers to know where their drugs, and their drugs’ components, are made. If a hospital wants to know if its supply of antibiotics is vulnerable, it needs to know where the drugs and the component parts are coming from, he said.

但是,他说,“这是一个问题,这么大量的活性药成份是在一个国家(中共国)生产的,美国的卫生保健提供者和消费者很难知道他们使用的药物及其成份在是在哪里被制造出来的。如果一家医院想知道其抗生素供应是否脆弱,它需要知道它使用的药物及其成份来自何处。”

Currently, he said, “There’s no way to know where antibiotics come from, or where the ingredients come from.”

罗纳德·皮尔文森齐(Ronald Piervincenzi)说,“现实情况是,这些医院目前没有办法知道这些抗生素的来源或者其成份的来源。”

编辑【喜马拉雅战鹰团】