The desire for access to natural and mineral resources and the hope of many settlers for economic opportunities or religious refuge led to an increased migration to and settlement in the West
Advocates of annexing western lands argued that Manifest Destiny and the superiority of American institutions compelled the US to expand its borders westwards its borders westward to the Pacific Ocean
The US Added large territories in the West through victory in the Mexican-American War and diplomatic negotiations, raising questions about the status of slavery, American Indians, and Mexicans in the newly acquired lands
Mexican American War
Mexican cession- added California and New Mexico to the US
South feared admission of California and New Mexico would upset the balance of slave and free states
Belief that the US was destined by God to expand
California gold discovery
Westward migration was boosted during and after the Civil War by the passage of new legislation promoting Western transportation and economic development
Gadsden Purchase (1853)- Treaty signed by james gadsen in 1853. That allowed for the purchase of 29,670-square-mile region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico completion of the Union Pacific Railroad (1869)- 1869, the presidents of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads meat in Promontory, Utah, and drove the ceremonial last spike into a rail line that connects their railroads. This made transcontinental railroad travel possible for the first time in U.S. history. No longer would western-bound travelers need to take the long and dangerous journey by wagon train, and the West would surely lose some of its wild charm with the new connection to the civilized East.
US interest in Expanding trade led to economic, diplomatic, and cultural initiatives to create more ties with Asia
The expansion of technology and industry made it possible for the U.S. to adopt a more global economy by trading with Asia.
The increased interaction with different cultures globalized diversified the American culture.
Ties with Asia lead to many Chinese immigrants coming to the United States to find work
In the 1840s and 1850s, Americans continued to debate questions about rights and citizenship for various groups of US inhabitants
Substantial numbers of international migrants continued to arrive in the US from Europe and Asia, mainly from Ireland and Germany, often settling in ethnic communities where they could preserve elements of their languages and customs
more than one-half of the population of Ireland and Germany emigrated to the United States during this time. Most of them came because of civil unrest, severe unemployment or almost inconceivable hardships at home.
As these immigrants came into the country, they were looking for work.- built a lot of canals and railroads.
With the vast numbers of German and Irish coming to America, hostility to them erupted- mainly because of religion. All of the Irish and many of the Germans were Roman Catholic.- Americans in low-paying jobs were threatened by groups willing to work for almost nothing in order to survive.- Ethnic and Anti- Catholic rioting occurred because of this- Nativist groups such as the Know- Nothings sprang up
A strongly anti- Catholic nativist movement arose that was aimed at limiting new immigrants’ political power and culture influence
KKK slightly changed their views in order to make Catholics and other immigrants feel unwelcome, and therefore hopefully not vote or have any influence.
US government interaction and conflict with Mexican Americans and American Indians increased in regions newly taken from American Indians and Mexico, altering these groups’ economic self-sufficiency and cultures