The Reform Movements Shainy Tello & Temi akinyoade 8th Period

Foundations of Reform

One of the reform movements was the Second Great Awakening, where reformers tried reviving more religious feelings. Henry David Thoreau, supported that people would challenge laws they thought were unconstitutional, called "Civil Disobedience". Other people who were in the movement, were Nathainel Howkthrone, Walk Whitman,and Raplh Waldo Emerson. A second movement was trancendentalism. In this movment, it was a belief that there was good in men. The Second Great Awakening had happened during the 1820s and 1830s. After the works of a certain group such as Washington Irving, Gilbert Stuart, and other poets and writers, a new set of refroms were inspired.

The Abolitionists

Abolitionists like Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, and Sojourner Truth wanted to stand up against slavery. In 1833, Garrison made the Anti-Slavery Society. Tubman was the conductor of the Underground Railroad which helped slaves escape. She helped over 300 slaves.

Womens Rights

Before 1940, Women werent allowed ro vote, allowd to hold a spot in office, keep money they earned, and keep their own property. Within those years, Women had limited rights. Since Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton did not agree with the limited rights they had. They both hosted a women's rights convention in New York. The convention organizers constructed their proposal for gender equality in The Declaration of Independence. The proposal was called the Declaration of Sentiments and it called for equalityon thinhs such as work, school, church, and voting.

Prison Reform

Dorothea Dix taught Sunday school at a jail and noticed how horribly the kids were being treated. Even people with mental illness who didn't do anything were sent to jail and beaten for their behavior. Dix wrote a report to the state legislature. The lawmakers were shocked so they made mental hospitals for the mentally ill. Dix was also able to outlaw cruel punishments and create a justice system for kids.

Public Education

Since going to school was expensive, few kids had education. Horace Mann, considered the"father of American public schools", noticed few kids attended school because of the expensive cost. He then convinced the citizens of Massachusetts to vote to pay schools. This slowly caught on in other states. Still, not enough girls were allowed to go to high school and college.

Temperance Movement

Alcohol abuse was part of many peoples' lives, despite age of gender. Alcohol abuse was found to be connected to crimes, mental illness, and the separation of families. The temperance movement was a campaign against the selling our drinking of alcohol. Maine and some other states eventually went along with it.


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