Period 5: 1844-1877 Key Concept 5.3 The union victory in the civil war and the contested reconstruction of the south settled the issue of slavery and secession, but left unresolved many questions about the power of the federal government and citizenship rights.

The 13th Amendment abolished slavery, while the 14th and 15th Amendments granted African Americans citizenship, equal protection under the laws, and voting rights.

The women’s rights movement was both emboldened and divided over the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution

Efforts by radical and moderate Republicans to change the balance of power between Congress and the presidency and to reorder race relations in the defeated South yielded some short-term successes. Reconstruction opened up political opportunities and other leadership roles to former slaves, but it ultimately failed, due both to determined Southern resistance and the North’s waning resolve.

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