Nondisjunction is a chromosomal mutation that produces an offspring with an incorrect number of chromosomes due to a mistake in meiosis.
Recessive genes are second of the two alleles in genes.
Dominant genes are the first of the two alleles in genes. If the dominant eye color gene in a kid is brown and the recessive eye color gene is blue, then the kid would more likely to have brown eyes than blue.
Somatic cells are any cell of an organism other than reproductive cells. Nerve cells, skin cells, tissue cells, and even more are considered somatic cells.
Germ cells are cells containing half of the number of chromosomes of a somatic cell and are able to unite with another germ cell of the opposite sex to create a new individual. Germ cells are also called gametes.
Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic disorder where a male is born with one extra X chromosome in the 23rd chromosome spot. It is not an inherited disorder and males born with it have low testosterone and most are born sterile. It is neither a dominant nor a recessive trait.
Down syndrome is a disorder where there is an abnormality in the 21st chromosome, resulting in intellectual disabilities, development delays, and more. It is a dominant trait.
Color blindness is a disorder that is typically inherited from an offspring's parents. It causes the offspring to not be able to distinguish between certain colors. A common color blindness disorder is not being able to distinguish between the colors of red and green. It is a autosomal dominant gene.
Turner's syndrome is a genetic disorder where a female is born with only one X chromosome in the 23rd chromosome spot. This results in short stature, infertility, delayed puberty, and even, in some cases, learning disabilities. It is nether dominant nor recessive.
Karyotype, Genotype and Phenotype
The Karyotype of an organism is the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in an organism. Genotype is the genetic makeup of an organism, meaning genotype makes up your personality and how you look. Phenotype is the physical characteristics of an organism. Genotype can affect the phenotype due to genotype making up both the genetics of an organism and the physical characteristics of an organism. Phenotype is the physical characteristics of an organism, so genotype affects it.