The Flying Shuttle created by John Kay which allowed for weavers to make fabrics faster on a loom which doubled their output. However, this led to a shortage of yarn within the country.
The Spinning Jenny created by James Hargreaves which was perfected in 1768, increased production of yarn to keep up with the flying shuttle's advancements.
The Water powered loom invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787 needed only flowing water to function, so weaving became very efficient.
The Steam Engine created by James Watt (A Scottish engineer) in the 1760s could pump water from coal mines 3x as fast when compared to other engine types, and the steam engine would turn a shaft which in turn drove machinery which led to greater coal production because coal could be lifted to the surface with these devices more easily. This also allowed steam engines to be used within the textile industry as well. Eventually, when the Revolution reached the U.S, the steam engine became very prominent for transportation across the Great Lakes, the Atlantic coast, and most rivers.
All of these inventions made textiles the most important export by Britain with Great Britain importing over 366 million pounds of cotton in 1840 alone.
Puddling which was the process of coke coal burning crude iron until all impurities were gone was created by Henry Cort. This led to a huge iron industry in Great Britain producing almost 3 million tons by 1852. This increase in iron brough along the age of locomotives.
Richard Trevithick made the first steam powered locomotive which was was able to pull 10 tons of ore which inspired others to produce better trains.
The Rocket created by George Stephenson was the first locomotive on Great Britain's new public rail line. It went 16 miles per hour and with it the industry began to grow and within 20 years Britain had 6,000 miles of track laid down with hundreds of trains. After a while, the industrial revolution reached the U.S. Railroads, canals, and roads were built and by 1865 the U.S had over 35,000 miles of railroad
The Lightbulb was created by Joseph Swan with the coming of electricity. The coming of the light bulb was revolutionary because it provided a new source of light, but it got rid of the risk of fires caused by lamps/candles. Thomas Edison, however, perfected the light bulb making sure it lasted much longer.
The Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. This created a different version of long distance communication other than the telegraph which was huge. In 1901, Guglielmo Marconi sent the first transatlantic message. Bell’s creation led to the eventual creation of the smartphone which has become a necessity in today’s world.
The Internal Combustion Engine was produced by Nikolaus Otto and Étienne Lenoir. This major breakthrough in engergy output led to the creation of ocean liners, automobiles, and airplanes. Orville and Wilbur Wright in 1903 in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina successfully flew the first fixed wing airplane which paved the way for the first commercial flight in 1919 and the modern airplane system we have today.
The Model T Ford was produced by Henry Ford and his use of the assembly line which cut down on the cost of the cars, but also did not require skilled workers which revolutionized the small but growing automobile industry.
Marxism was thought of by Karl Marx, this philosophy believed in a classless society in which the populous was equal in status and all resources went to the government which would distribute them evenly to the people. Marx predicted that the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeois and would establish a dictatorship to reform the state. His ideas were taken by working-class leaders who then formed socialist parties.
The largest of these was the German Social Democratic Party (SDF) which gained control of the german lower parliament and tried to obtain better conditions for the working class. The 2nd International was created in 1889 which consisted of various socialist groups that fought against capitalism. Some disagreed with Marx’s Revolutionist ideas but still believed in socialism. These socialists, known as revisionists, wanted to form political parties and bring gradual change instead of the radical ideas of Marx.