Causes of WW1(MAIN)
World War I occurred between July 1914 and November 11, 1918. By the end of the war, over 17 million people had been killed, including over 100,000 American troops. While the causes of the war are infinitely more complicated than a simple timeline of events, and are still debated and discussed to this day, the list below provides an overview of the most frequently cited events that led to war. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia got involved to defend Serbia. Germany seeing Russia mobilizing, declared war on Russia. France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France through Belgium pulling Britain into war. Then Japan entered the war. Later, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the allies.
Imperialism is when a country increases their power and wealth by bringing additional territories under their control. Before World War I, Africa and parts of Asia were points of contention among the European countries. This was especially true because of the raw materials these areas could provide. The increasing competition and desire for greater empires led to an increase in confrontation that helped push the world into World War I.
As the world entered the 20th century, an arms race had begun. By 1914, Germany had the greatest increase in military buildup. Great Britain and Germany both greatly increased their navies in this time period. Further, in Germany and Russia particularly, the military establishment began to have a greater influence on public policy. This increase in militarism helped push the countries involved into war.
Much of the origin of the war was based on the desire of the Slavic peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina to no longer be part of Austria Hungary but instead be part of Serbia. In this way, nationalism led directly to the War. But in a more general way, the nationalism of the various countries throughout Europe contributed not only to the beginning but the extension of the war in Europe. Each country tried to prove their dominance and power.
First about the World War One started because of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. There were a large number of allies on each side of the conflict, and their geographical location and that of their imperial provinces meant that parts of the war were fought all over, Europe, North Africa, The Middle East, Pacific Ocean. Those are all the battles taken place. This all started because of a small conflict between two military enemies and that spread to the other nations which led to a big war. All these places were the places where the battles had taken place from. So this means that the little conflict or disagreement between the two military enemies, it can make a whole difference that may have caused even more bigger fight and bigger war happening, which was how the World War One battles had taken place, “Undoubtedly, the most tragic and devastating of the losses caused by the war was the loss of life. Millions of soldiers died in battles, and countless civilians were killed by the side effects of the war..”(conclusion: the cost of war/Page 198). The battles happened everywhere and millions of people died which make up a battle to be a war because it is a huge number of people fighting against each in the battle or war.
Technology and Trench warfare:
The First World War caused more death and destruction than any other war before it, this had to do with the powerful new military technology being invented during the war. The machine gun was one of these death machines, probably the most deadly and well know piece of technology invented. This gun allowed up to 500 bullets to be shot in one minute, this allowed for mass death. Adding to the deadliness, the machine gun was mass produced and most soldiers had one, making no man’s land a death sentence with millions of bullets zooming past you. To add to the bullets, a lot of artillery was invented. Such as tanks, another memorable invention, invented by the British in 1915. To add to a soldier's fear of bullets, artillery planes were invented and also zeppelin which are giant artillery blimps watched over enemies and devastated the battlefield in missions called "zeppelin raids". And of course we have the German invented U-boat which adding another layer of fear for soldiers. Commonly called submarines, these underwater boats were extremely deadly, as they had extreme stealth. Infantry and Marines were as good as dead if they'd come across a U-boat. Last but not least we have the extremely deadly poisonous gas. WW1 was the beginning of chemical warfare, giving infantry an additional problem to worry about including gun in all directions. Trench warefare was yet another fear added to the soldiers. A typical trench usually had a lot of people, the Floors were all muddy and a fungus called "trench foot" was common to get. The trenches usually had a lot of rats which spread disease. They had soldiers on watch at night due to the many stealth attacks that occurred during night. Soldiers barely got any sleep, they usually used playing cards and wrote to their families. They also sometimes had a watch dog to alert for enemies and smell for gas. They had sandbags to hold the trenches up.
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
The treaty was made in June 28, 1919. The purpose of this treaty was to create peace after WW1, it was made mainly by “The Big Three”.The treaty was made to show what Germany’s restrictions were because of the cause that had lost the war. The war consisted of the central power and Germany was involved in the war, so after they lost the war the other powers had to make several treaties to let Germany know what was going happen.This treaty lead to a League of Nations, this league was an international that was meant to be in charge of keeping peace with the nations. And since germany lost the treaty also gave a punishment to the country. They lost a lot of land and got restrictions on their military. There was also a punishment known as “war guilt” which basically gave the responsibility of the war to Germany, and because of this the country had to pay reparations to the Allies. And because of the League of Nations the land in Africa and the Pacific, this land was territory of Germany at the time, was to be determined by them. So the Treaty of Versailles was a treaty that set boundaries and punishments to the defeated. It also gave the victors more land power over other countries, trying to create peace with everyone. But this wasn’t the case because this wasn’t the only treaty made at the time, other treaties caused trouble and conflict.
WHY THE RUSSIANS LEFT THE WAR
The russians left the war in March 1917. The reason they left was a problem with resources, there was a lot of shortages with food and fuel because of the war going on at the time, and because of the resources Czar Nicholas was forced to step down. A provisional government then took the place and said that they would keep fighting in the war either way. There were many killed almost 5.5 million Russians either killed or hurt or taken as prisoners. But after eight months of the new government a revolution had started that messed with Russia , so in March 1918 they signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and then ended the war that was happening between them and Lemin.
The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand:
The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand was a major event that sparked the war. But what happened on that day? Let's find out. Ferdinand was the nephew of Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was shot to death with his wife by a Serbian nationalist in 1914. Ferdinand was driving to inspect imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina. His driver took the wrong turned, which happened to pass by a 19-year-old Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip, who took the opportunity to shoot Ferdinand. Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government, which caused Austria-Hungary to declare war. The declaration was delayed quickly, due to Serbia's deadly allies, Russia. Austria-Hungary waited until they found out that Germany would help them in the war, they then declared war, starting World War 1.
First about the Allied Powers was the countries that opposed the central powers in the First World War. The countries for the allies were, Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States. These countries fought against the central powers which were, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria, for the World War One. Which also means the battles was taken place everywhere because of the countries which was against the allies or against central powers. Which means it led to bigger war happening,“Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and all their nationals have been subject as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies."(The failed peace/Page 193). The countries were fighting over powers to control and it wasn't fair because both countries wanted the powers to control and some of them are enemies and don't agreed with them. Which also means one country or nation is Allied and one country or nation is Central.
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The immediate cause of World War I that made the aforementioned items come into play (alliances, imperialism, militarism, nationalism) was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian-nationalist terrorist group called the Black Hand sent groups to assassinate the Archduke. Their first attempt failed when a driver avoided a grenade thrown at their car. However, later that day a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip assassinated him and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia which was part of Austria-Hungary. This was in protest to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Serbia wanted to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. This assassination led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. When Russia began to mobilize due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances.
The Central Powers were Germany, the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. These nations banded together, mostly out of national pride, and for revenge for previous losses the Bulgarians to the Serbs in 1913. These alliances were sloppy: some of the nations were not aligned with others at all times, or declarations of war were not made against all the Allied Powers.