LSD By Quiana Noble

What is LSD?Lysergic acid diethylamide is an hallucinogen. LSD is an abbreviation of the German term Lysergsaure-Diathylamid for lysergic acid diethylamide. LSD is considered the typical hallucinogen and the characteristics of its action and effects apply to the other hallucinogens, including mescaline, psilocybin, and ibogaine. LSD was discovered in 1938. It is manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains.

History of LSD:It is often stated in the literature that LSD was discovered by chance. The following account will show that LSD was not the fruit of a chance discovery, but the outcome of a more complex process that had its beginnings in a definite concept, and was followed up by appropriate experiments, during the course of which a chance observation served to trigger off a planned investigation, which then led to the actual discovery. Such a train of events often underlies what is said to be a chance discovery.

He prepared lysergic acid diethylamide for the first time in 1938 as part of a systematic chemical and pharmacological investigation of partially synthetic amides of Iysergic acid in the Sandoz pharmaceutical-chemical research laboratories in Basle, headed at that time by Professor Arthur Stoll. Lysergic acid is the characteristic nucleus of the alkaloids of ergot and can be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of these alkaloids. Using a newly developed procedure, one had proved it possible to combine Iysergic acid with amines in peptide linkage. In this way, the specific oxytocic principle of ergot, namely Ergometrine, known in this country as ergonovine, was produced. This was the first partial synthesis of a natural ergot alkaloid, and by modifying the alkanolamine side chain of Ergometrine a new synthetic derivative, which we named Methergine, was obtained. In its pharmacological properties Methergine proved to be superior to the natural alkaloid, and today it is used throughout the world in obstetrics for the arrest of hemorrhage. Although interest centered mainly on oxytocic and hemostatic activity in these investigations, the new method of synthesis was also employed to prepare amides of Iysergic acid, which, on the basis of their chemical structure, might be expected to possess different pharmacological properties. Thus among other compounds, I synthesized the diethylamide of Iysergic acid with the intention of obtaining an analeptic. This compound might have been expected to possess analeptic properties because of its structural relationship with the well-known circulatory stimulant nikethamide.

Scientific Discovery:A Swiss chemist named Albert Hofmann was employed in a laboratory at Sandoz, a pharmaceutical company, when he first synthesized LSD. Sandoz was working on a research project involving a parasitic fungus called ergot that grows on rye, known as Claviceps purpurea. In the Middle Ages, it poisoned thousands of people who ate rye bread infected with it. Ergot had also been used by midwives, who sometimes gave it to pregnant women to bring about and speed up labor. In the 19th century, most physicians deemed the practice too dangerous because high dosages lead to strong contractions and endanger the baby, although physicians sometimes still used ergot to stop a woman's bleeding after childbirth.

Physical Effect: Dilated pupil , Higher or lower body temperature, Sweating or chills (“goose bumps”), Sleeplessness, Dry mouth, Tremors

Mental Effects: Delusions, Visual hallucinations, An artificial sense of euphoria or certainty, Distortion of one’s sense of time and identity, Impaired depth perception, Impaired time perception, distorted perception of the size and shape of objects, movements, color, sounds, touch and the user’s own body image , Fear of losing control, Flashbacks, or a recurrence of the LSD trip,and panic often without warning long after taking LSD, Severe depression or psychosis, panic attack

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