ReForm movements Brandon Williams & Brian Phan Period 7

Foundations Of Reform

Foundations of Reform: There were some efforts of reforming American society which came from new religious movements flowing across the country. One of the movements was the Second Great Awakening which kind of like highlighted the role that individuals played in their own societies. Events in the world of the United States politics served to motivate the public as well as the American writers and artists such as Washington Irving, James Cooper, Herman Melville, Henry Longfellow, Emily Dickinson, John Audubon, Gilbert Stuart, and Matthew Brady. The election of Andrew Jackson in 1828, provided a sense of hope for all citizens. To sum up, the foundations of reform is basically the time where people believed and supported the idea of the goodness of yourself, good society, and leadership.

Abolitionists

Learn more about this topic in this link :DĀ http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/abolitionist-movement

Abolitionists: These were people in the mid 1800's both black and white (Americans) that were speaking out against slavery. A lot of most of the Abolitonists believed that the only way "liberty and equality for all" could be true was to end slavery. The whole massacre that started this was the cruel treatment on slaves that made an effort to separate the blacks from the white community or society. Yes this was a very serious event, but many NorthenersĀ still accepted southern slavery. Many people made a big impact on this movement such as William Lloyd Garrison, Angelina and Sarah Grimke, Frederick Douglass, Sojouner Truth, and Harriet Tubman. This made a new look on slavery in the North and also gave motivation for Women's rights later on.

Women's Rights

Women's Rights: Women did not have many rights before the reform movements. Women didn't have the the right to vote and they lost all their stuff once they get married. The first women to acknowledge the rights they deserved was Seneca Falls. In the mounth of may and year of 1890 the national woman's suffrage group was created to bring attention to woman's rights. Some of the people involved in this movement include Douglass, Truth, Grimke Sisters, Susan B. Anthony, and Lucy Stone. Slowly the movement made increasing progress leading to later having divorce laws, keeping of property and wages.

Prison Reform

A Boston school teacher Dorothea Dix had a favor to a friend stating to agree to teach Sunday school class at a jail. This led to a reform effort in the category or area of prisons and treatment of the mentally ill. When the saw the interior and features of the jail she was shocked of how the conditions were and the treatments they were putting on the people such as dark cages, damp cells, and children being celled with adults. All of this cruel treatment just because most of them couldn't afford to pay their debts. Out of all of this the most crazy is that they imprisoned mentally ill people just because they were crazy because that was how they were born. She made a report to the legislatures which led to the outlawing of cruel punishments, discountinuing of debtors prisons and jail for children.

Temperance Reform

The effects of alcohol was widespread among men, women, and children. Reformers highlighted alcohol abuse of crime, drama/trouble of families, and mental illness. This caused the Temperance movement in the late 1820's to start which showed that they were against the selling and drinking of alcohol. By 1850, Maine was the first to ban the sale of alcohol leading to other states following this movement.

Education Reform

All of the popularity of reforming came to classrooms. Many children couldn't attend schools because of the cost. The effort to reform this practice was granted by Horace Mann who was nicknamed "father of American public schools". Because he served as the head of the state board of education in Massachusetts, he spoke to citizens about the importance of public schools for education. This was so inspiring that the citizens voted to pay taxes to build better schools, to pay higher salaries for teachers, and to open schools to train teachers. This quickly reached and spreader around the country causing more schools to be built.

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