Media institutions and distribution for our trailer By Sean Welsh

There are four parts to the development and release of any film- Production, distribution, exhibition and regulation. These four stages are a part of the development and release of any media text by any media institution, but I will be exploring how these stages play a part in the creation of a film as for our coursework we've been tasked with creating the a trailer, poster and magazine cover for original Neo-Noir text. A media institution is an organisation involved in the production, distribution, exhibition and/or regulation of a media text. Examples of Media institutions include the following:

Production companies

Production Companies- These are the institutions that are responsible for the initial phase of a media text's creation. Production is the actual construction of the text and the production company are responsible for developing the narrative, story, plot and script, selecting the director for their film, allocating a budget, casting and the filming of the text. Post-production they also have the role of editing the text to ensure its the way they want it to be distributed. Many regard production companies as the most important institution involved in the process by which films are made as without them there would be no text for the distribution companies to distribute. Warner Bros. & Universal Pictures are both examples of production Companies.

Distribution companies

Distribution Companies- Distribution companies are responsible for all aspects of the making of a film that does not include planning or construction. They finance the production companies during construction and any editing done post-production. Production companies will first pitch their idea of a film to the distribution companies and they will look at who the target audience for the text are and whether or not they are the conventional audience for their company and if they find that the target audience are a demographic that they can sell to they'll begin their marketing campaign. So as well as financing the film they're also responsible for marketing the text and distributing it to selected cinemas and retailers. A distribution company's marketing campaign must be successful in order for the film to stand a chance of making them profit, something that is not as simple as it seems as only 1 in 5 films produced in Hollywood make box office. Because of this distribution companies will advertise their films in magazines, on bus stops, billboards, television ads and most typically through film trailers. Recently distribution companies have been using more atypical methods to advertise films, incorporating more convergence into their campaigns to try and keep up to date with the digital proliferation that is apparent in our society. An example of this was when in 2010 Paramount Pictures placed a QR code into the chest of Iron Man's suit on bus stop posters and when people followed the link they would be taken to a website that gave more information about the film.

There are many different types of distribution companies that best suit different texts. The two main types are major and independent. Major distribution companies, such as the 'big six'- Disney, Universal, Warner Bros., Sony, Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox, are all situated in Hollywood and have a tendency to go for films with a large target audience to whom they can advertise to. They supply the production companies with huge budgets and have global advertising campaigns. Independent distribution companies, such as Film District, go for films with more original narratives, smaller budget costs and films that explore a plethora of ideologies. These films normally have a niche target audience and so they are more suited to the independent companies as they have smaller, more targeted advertising campaigns. For example Film District have distributed Neo-Noir films such as Drive, 2011, Nicolas Winding Refn, whereas major distribution companies such as Warner Bros. have distributed Neo-Noir films such as Blade Runner, 1982, Ridley Scott and L.A Confidential, 1997, Curtis Hanson.

Which Production company and why?

For our production company we have decided to use Bold Films. We have gone for Bold Films as we feel as though it has experience with the Neo-Noir genre and more specifically more independent Neo-Noir texts such as Drive, 2011, Nicolas Winding Refn, and Nightcrawler, 2014, Dan Gilroy, as well as having numerous award winning films such as Whiplash, 2014, Damien Chazelle and as a result we feel as though their understanding of the Neo-Noir genre and award winning film making will help increase the quality and professionalism of our text. Another reason as to why we see Bold Films as an appropriate and well suiting production company is that it is major/minor and has the ability to provide a large budget for independent films, with a budget of $15 million and $8.5 million for Drive and Nightcrawler respectively. We feel as though a major/minor is best suited for our text as they specialise in films that conform to the conventions of mainstream & commercial as well as independent films. Our text features a number of conventions that are split evenly over these two very different categories and so for that reason we fell that a major/minor production company such as Dark Cloud Productions suits our text best.

Which Distribution company and why?

After a great deal of research we came across Focus Features and we decided that they would be the perfect distributers for our construction. This is because they are a Major/minor and they distributed Drive, as Film District before they dissolved to Focus Features in 2014, and Looper, 2012, Rian Johnson, which are both critically acclaimed Neo-Noir films, and our text has been referenced as being similar to Drive, many times in our audience research. Because of the success of Drive and it's similarity to our text we feel as though it would be wise to have them as our distributors. Film Focus, owned by Comcast, are vertically integrated as part of the NBC Universal division.


Exhibition is the retail aspect of the film industry. Exhibitions of texts can be done in a plethora of ways: cinema premiere, live streaming, on Television and by a DVD only release. Since our film is an independent production, it would be unusual for it to be released in mainstream cinemas. However, we would target some more niche cinemas that specialise in independent films rather than having an online only release whilst also having it shown in some mainstream cinemas as many noir films have had mainstream releases to great success. In addition, our poster and film magazine are still avaliable to a wider audience in order to advertise our text and as a result those members of our target audience who may not normally see films outside of mainstream cinema will be made aware of our construction.


The regulations of films in the UK is done by the BBFC, British Board of Film Classification, founded in 1912, and regulation of media texts are done in the public's interest to ensure that they are not exposed to inappropriate material. After reading through the guidelines set out by the BBFC we have decided that our film is a 15 as the guidelines for a rating of 12 A states "There may be moderate violence...There should be no emphasis on injuries or blood" and in our text there are scenes of moderate and excessive violence and there is emphasis on injury in our construction, for example when Sam shoots the thug in the head.


Created with images by mariananbu - "sony camera lens" • Pexels - "advertisement billboard outside poster train station advertisement" • PublicDomainPictures - "cinema entertainment audience film festival girona theater"

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