Throughout the past 47 years, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has witnessed multiple bloody conflicts that have taken the lives of its innocent children
A group of Afghani soldiers block the road with their tanks in order to face the revolutionists
Saur Revolution (1978)
- 'Saur' is the Dari name of the second month of the Persian calendar, the month in which the uprising took place.
- Revolution took place on 27–28 April 1978.
- A revolution led by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against the rule of self-proclaimed Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan.
- Daoud had overthrown the previous king Mohammed Zahir in 1973., while he was abroud getting treated
- The revolution led to the 1979 intervention by the Soviets and the 1979–1989 Soviet–Afghan War against the Mujahideen.
Soviet–Afghan War (1979–89)
- The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years from December 1979 to February 1989.
- The relationship between the Soviet Union and the new government was deteriorating.
- The Soviet government, under leader Leonid Brezhnev staged a coup in the capital, killing president Amin and installing Soviet loyalist Babrak Karmal from a rival faction.
- Insurgent groups ("the Mujahideen") fought against the Soviet Army and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
- Between 850,000–2 million civilians were killed and millions of Afghans fled the country as refugees, mostly to Pakistan and Iran.
Afghan Civil War (1989–92)
- First Civil war that started a chain of wars within the nation
- The 1989 to 1992 phase of the Afghan Civil War Began after the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan, leaving the Afghan communist government to fend for itself against the Mujahideen.
- After several years of fighting, the government fell in 1992.
Afghan Civil War (1992–96)
- The 1992 to 1996 phase of the Conflict in Afghanistan began after the resignation of the communist President Mohammed Najibullah.
- The post-communist Islamic State of Afghanistan was established by the Peshawar Accord, a peace and power-sharing agreement under which all the Afghan parties were united in April 1992, except for Hekmatyar faction.
- Hekmatyar started a bombardment campaign against the capital city Kabul which marked the beginning of this new phase in the war.
- Only major cities were facing the tragedies of the war
Afghan Civil War (1996–2001)
- In 1996 the Taliban captured the Afghan Capital Kabul and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
- The Islamic State of Afghanistan government remained the internationally recognized government of Afghanistan.
- The Taliban's Emirate was only recognized by only Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates.
- The war started when the defense minister of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, created the United Front (Northern Alliance) in opposition to the Taliban.
- There were clashes until the 2001 U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan, which lead to the fall of the Taliban government
The American invasion caused a domino effect which lead to different wars and interventions