Southern Africa Pages 377-396

Landforms and Bodies of Water

  1. The largest of these is the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  2. Central Africa is located in Earth's equatorial zone and that is the area along the equator.
  3. it dwarfs it's neighbors, which are the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and the island country of Sao Tome and Principe.


  1. Here, rugged mountain ranges soar above a broad, deep valley that holds several long, narrow lakes
  2. Mountain peaks rise to more than 11,000 feet.
  3. A narrow coastal plain lies between the mountains and the Indian Ocean.

Bodies of Water

  1. The first major fiver is the Zambezi.
  2. The second major river is Limpopo.
  3. The third major river is Orange.


  • Which type of land form is common in Southern Africa?

The plateaus, Mountains and hills.

Climate-Tropical Zone

  1. southern Africa's climate is humid to arid to hot to cool.
  2. nearly all of the climates have distinctive seasons with certain seasons receiving most of the rain.

Temperature Zones

  1. Winters are cool, with frosts and sometimes freezing temperatures on the high plateaus.
  2. most of the rain falls during the summer, with very little the rest of the year.

Desert Regions

  1. Temperatures along the coast are mild, however, with daily averages ranging from 48 degrees F to 68 degrees F ( 9 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees Celsius ).
  2. The area is sometimes called the "Skeleton Coast" because many ships used to lose their way in the fog and run aground.


  • Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?

It is because of high elevation.

Natural Resources (Question)

  • What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?

they have mineral resources they are important because it helps build a strong economy.

South Africa's Resources

  1. It is the world's largest producers of diamonds both gems and industrial diamonds, or diamonds used to make cutting or grinding tools.
  2. These resources, along with important deposits of coal, iron ore, uranium, copper, and other minerals, have created a thriving mining industry.

Energy Resources

  1. The regions river are are another resource for providing power.
  2. Oil and gas must be refined or changed into other products before they can be used.

Minerals and other Recources

  1. Namibia is an important producer of tin, zinc, copper, gold, silver, and uranium.
  2. In countries outside Southern Africa, groups have also mined diamonds to pay for rebellions and other violent conflicts.


  1. Wildebeests, lions, zebras, giraffes, and many other animals are found across the region of South Africa.


  • How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?
  1. sediment enters the rivers and it reduces the water flow and the electricity.



Rise of Kingdoms

  1. Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  1. As many as 20,000 people lived in the city and surrounding valley.
  2. Around the year A.D. 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique.

The Mutapa Empire

  1. In the late 1400's the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique.
  2. The Portuguese took arrived and took over the coastal trade in the 1500's.

Other Kingdoms

  1. The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800's to form the Zulu empire in what is now South Africa.
  2. Shaka was killed in 1828, but his empire survived until the British destroyed it in the Zulu War of 1879.

European Colonies

  1. Around 1500, Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.

Clashes in South Africa

  1. The African's did not like the Dutch pushing into their land, and soon they started fighting over it.

The Union of South Africa

  1. Wars in Europe gave Britain control of Cape Colony in the early 1800's.

Colonialism in Other Areas

  1. While the British and Boers competed fro South Africa, Others European countries were competing over the rest of Africa.


  • Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800's?
  • Answer: The British claimed most of the territory.

Independence and equal rights

  1. The French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960, Making the first Southern African country to gain Independence.

The End of Portuguese Rule

  1. While other European nations gave up their African Colonies, Portugal refused to do so.

The Birth of Zimbabwe

  1. After granting Malawi and Zambia independence Britain prepared to free neighboring Zimbabwe then called Southern Rhodesia.

Equal Rights in South Africa

  1. After independence the growth of South Africa's mining and other industries depended on the labor of black Africans who greatly outnumbered the country's whites.
  2. English South Africans controlled the government until the end of World War 2.
  3. By the 1970's apartheid-related events in South Africa had gained world attention.
Life in South Africa

The people of the Region

  1. The population of Southern Africa is overwhelmingly black African.

Population Patterns

  1. Southern Africa has a very widely population.
  2. Fewer than 2 million people live in small countries of Lesotho, and Swaziland.
  3. South Africa which surrounds both of them has the region's largest population of about 49 million.

Ethnic and Culture Group

  1. Southern Africa is home to many ethnic groups who speak several different languages.
  2. one group which is the Shona makes up more than 80 percent of the country of Zimbabwe.
  3. South Africa's 9 million Zulu make up that country's largest ethnic group.

Religion and Languages

  1. Southern Africa's colonial past has also influenced its people's religious beliefs.
  2. In almost every country most of the people are Christians.


  • what is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?
  • Answer: Judaism is the religion.

Life in Southern Africa

  1. As in other regions in Africa life differs from city to countryside.

Urban Life

  1. Although most people in the region of Southern Africa live in the countryside migration to cities grows because of job opportunities.

Urban Growth and Change

  1. The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities services such as trash collection, sewage treatment, and water distribution.
  2. Outside the central city are the white neighborhoods where about 20 percent of the city's population live in "townships" at the city's edge.
  3. these areas often have no electricity, clean water, or sewer facilities.

Family and Traditional Life

  1. People who move to cities must adjust to new experiences and a different way of life.
  2. In many cultures all the people in a village are related by blood or marriage to the village's headman of chief.

Southern Africa Today

  1. Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.

Health Issues

  1. In the majority of countries most people do not live beyond age 50 to 55.


  1. Malaria is a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes is a problem in several countries.
  2. Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of an infant death in the world.
  3. The high incidence of HIV/AIDS rate averages between 11 and 14 percent.

Progress and Growth

  1. Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.
  2. Only Zimbabwe and Swaziland continue continue to suffer economic decline and political unrest largely due to repressive leaders.

Help From Other Countries

  1. The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.
  2. Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.


  • Why is life in Southern Africa so low?
  • Answer: Faces economic challenges and many of its traditional African farming communities struggle in poverty growing few if any cash crops.


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