La Historia de España Leah Do 8 Corazones

The Ancient Pit-Stop

This map shows Spain's great location
  • Spain was a stop made by many during ancient times. It was known as the Ancient Pit Stop.
  • It was a good location to repai. damage to ship or boats, to trade, and to refuel (food)
  • Since it was so essential many groups were trying to win control of it

Pre-Roman Iberia

  • The Celtiberos = 1st to inhabit Spain (middle part)
  • Iberos from Africa took control of the eastern part of Spain
  • The Celtas inhabited the western part. They wished to take over Spain and it seemed to be easy to them. They did not know about the Iberos had inhabited it already
  • The Iberian Peninsula is named after the Celtiberos. It is presently known as Portugal and Spain.
  • Since the Romans had such a strong military it was constantly expanding its empire. It took over Spain.
  • The Romans believed in allies they killed anyone who opposed them.
  • The Roman Empire fell in 409 AD
  • There are still remnants of Roman culture in Segovia and Merida

New Conquers

  • The Visigoths take over Spain for a period of time.
  • Then the Arabs, Berbers, Syrian, who are from Northern Africa, take over the peninsula in 711 AD
  • The Visigoths were easily defeated by those stated above.

La Reconquista

  • There was constant fighting between Christian kingdoms (north) and Muslims (south)
  • Muslim Spain was called "Al-Andalus"
  • Santiago is the patron saint of Spain. His phrase "Matamoros" was used during the La reconquista
  • El Cid was the hero of La Reconquista.

During the Reconquista religions were discriminating each other. One city that was open to everyone was Toledo. There Jews, Muslims, and Christians. Each of these three religions have influence on this city.

Catholic Kings

  • After the fall of the last Moorish king, Spain became Catholic under their new rulers
  • The new King was Fernando of Aragon and the Queen was Isabel of Castilla.
  • They married in 1469.
  • The two united the Christian kingdoms against the Muslims ones.
  • Through religion and military success the two solidified their power.
  • They ended the Reconquista.

1492

  • The Moors have split into smaller kingdoms.
  • Most of the kingdoms feel and the last one in Granada was defeated in January of 1492

The Spanish Inquisition

  • Since the last Moorish king died in 1492 the Muslims in Spain were allowed to either leave or convert to Christianity.
  • The success of the Muslims led to Jews being given this choice.
  • Some people were not telling the truth about converting. Spain fixed this by getting permission from the pope to interrogate and torture those who were suspected of lying.
  • The pope said yes and the Inquisition started

Juana, the daughter of Fernando and Isabel, married Marries Felipe (el Hermoso.) Marries Felipe was from the powerful and rich family of Habsburg. The kingdom of Spain is in the Habsburg family for a long time. She married Felipe for money and power. Juana was known as "la Loca." This is because legend says that when Felipe died she kissed his coffin while walking through the streets of Granada.

Carlos I 1516-1556

  • Juana and Felipe had a son.
  • He declared himself the Holy Roman Emperor after power got to his head.
  • Carlos was known to be mean. He decided to changed his name to Charles V of Austria/ Germany so that people wouldn't be scared away when they knew he was coming.
  • The Spanish Empire grew under him. For example, Spain conquered Incas and Aztecs. From these new lands, gold, silver, and new crops flooded into Spain.
  • Carlos used the money from the colonies to fund the religious wars he was fighting.
  • Under his rule Spain was one the biggest supporters of Catholicism. Spain fought to end the Protestant Reformation.
  • His successor was his son Felipe II.

Felipe II

  • Felipe continued the wars against the Protestants.
  • Hoping to form an international Catholic alliance, Felipe married Mary of Tudor of England in 1554. A male heir would from this marriage become the King of England, but this didn't occur. Elizabeth the I came to power making England a Protestant country.
  • Under his rule Portugal was annexed and the Dutch declared independence. This started a war with England.
  • The Spain ship, The Armada, was defeated by England
  • After the defeat of the Armada in 1588, Felipe decided to remain in his home the El Escorial. He died there overlooking the altar of the basilica

La Leyenda Negra.

  • The Leyenda Negra was the Black Legend.
  • It was propaganda to prevent anyone from traveling to Spain. It was England and Portugal's way on getting revenge on Spain
  • Poster were hung. They showed dirty streets and kings eating children.

El Greco was a painter from Greece. He quit his job and traveled to Spain in search of a job to decorate the El Escorial. Felipe didn't like his style so said he could not. El Greco was mad. He moved to Toledo and hits it big there. Since he was mad he paints pictures making fun of Felipe and his power

Habsburg Kings

  • Felipe II dies and his son Felipe II takes the throne (1598-1621)
  • Felipe III successful is his son Felipe IV and he is Spain's ruler from 1621-1665
  • Under Felipe IV, Spain experienced it's Golden Ages which is known as Siglo de Oro.

Siglo De Oro

  • Literature, Drama, and Art are created during this time. Some being La Vida Es Sueño, Lope de Vega, and Don Quixote.
  • Also during this time a character, Don Juan, created the Latin Lover

Carlos the II was known as "el Hechizado" or "the Bewitched." Since he was crazy no women wanted to marry him, resulting in no heir when he died in 1700.

War Because of No Heir

  • Since their was no heir the question of Spanish succession made royal families and nation go against each other.
  • The war ended in 1713
  • Results= Gibraltar now the English's, Felipe V became king (Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV)

The Bourbons

  • The Bourbons were good rulers, but they were more focused with the life at court.
  • They tried to modernize Spain based on the ideas on the Enlightenment

Carlos the IV was the Grandson of Felipe V and the son of Carlos III. He was not a good leader and got into a lot of trouble. This is because he dealt with Napoleon.

War!!!!

  • The War of Spanish Independence started with a Rebellion on May 2, 1808 in Madrid.
  • Joseph Bonaparte was removed from the throne in 1812.
  • The war caused most American colonies gained independence. It also started a new constitution of 1812. This made a parliamentary monarchy.

Fernando VII

  • ruled from (1814-1833)
  • Son of Carlos IV
  • Fernando wanted a totalitarian rule, he was constantly arguing with liberals.
  • He died on 1833 leaving a daughter Isabel as heir.

Isabel II rules Spain during political turmoil starting in 1833. The Carlists who supported Fernando's brother kept opposing her authority. The fought against liberal supporter of Isabel in many "Guerras Carlistas." She is removed from power in 1868 by the "Glorious Revolution. A new experiment is tested out. King Amado of Saboya who Italian rules from 1870-1873.

First Spanish Republic

The First Spanish Republic founded in 1873, but only lasts a year.

This picture is of a young Alfonso XIII. He was the son of Alfonso XII who reigned from 1875-1885. He started to rule in 1902-1931. During the time between his reign and his own his mother was regent. During this time Spain lost the remaining of its colonies and was embarrassed by military defeats in Morocco.

Alfonso XIII

  • There was political tension and low morale in Spain so Alfonso allowed a general to create a dictatorship.
  • It last from 1923-1931. It was unable to solve the country's problems so an elections were held to see if should Spain continue as a monarchy or try a democracy again.

The Second Republic of Spain

  • It is established in 1931 brings in a new era of hope and optimism
  • It creates a new and modernized constitution, gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates Church from State, and sets up public school.
  • The new government set up causes an deeper political and social divide.
  • The military, Church, and upper classes feel the constitution have to many changes.
  • Socialists and Communist faction think there should be more changes

Civil War

  • General Francisco Franco starts a revolt in 1936 starting the war
  • Franco's troops receive aided from Germany and Italy.
  • The Republican forces on the other hand are very little help.
  • Franco's forces win ending the war in 1939

Francisco Franco

  • Fascist dictator from 1939 until he died in 1975
  • Looked up to Carlos V and Felipe II
  • Under his rule there were gender roles, religion, regionalism banned, and censorship
  • Also exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists occurred

Juan Carlos I de Borbon

  • Basque terrorist group kills Franco's chosen successor, who was the grandson of Alfonso XIII
  • in 1975 Juan Carlos I de Bourbon becomes king
  • He declares a democracy and names Adolfo Suarez as the first Prime Minister. The transition is begun by Suarez.

Democracy

  • Suarez id elected in election during 1978.
  • Then in the 80's Felipe Gonzalez joins NATO and the EU leading Spain out of isolation.
  • Jose Maria Aznar creates Spain influence in the world with an alliance with the US and a flourishing economy.

11-M

  • Islamic terrorist put bombs in many commuter trains in Madrid.
  • This event killed close to 200 and hurting over 2000.
  • Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero becomes the prime minister 2 days after the attack. He also won re-election in 2008.

The Royal Family

  • Spain still has its royal family, but government decision are dealt with by Parliament anf President of the Government

Credits:

Created with images by jochemy - "flag spain mast" • nathanh100 - "Map of Spain, 2012" • Miguel. (respenda) - "Gotor. Zaragoza." • izik - "Roman Bathhouse" • Bogdan Migulski - "Mezquita in Cordoba, Spain" • gustavoboulhosa - "toledo spain tagus river" • PactoVisual - "monuments travel alhambra" • http://klarititemplateshop.com/ - "Spanish Inquisition, Plaza Mayor, Madrid" • Arcaion - "money coins poland" • Cea. - "[ G ] El Greco - Baptism of Christ (1596)" • RinzeWind - "Felipe IV (II)" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - "Carlos II" • Renaud Camus - "Le Jour ni l'Heure 8270 : portrait anonyme de François II d'Este, 1660-1694, duc de Modène de 1662 à 1694, musée de Mirandola, province de Modène, Émilie-Romagne, samedi 29 octobre 2011, 16:58:53" • irinaraquel - "Federico de Madrazo y Kuntz - Isabel Alvarez Montes, II duquesa de Castro Enriquez y II marquesa de Valderas" • Old Photographs Archive Spain - "Alfonso XIII joven"

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