India and China Olivia young & Trevor young
- The main religion found in India is Hinduism.
- Created during the Vedic Period (1700-150 BCE)
- Worshippers would gather around the Indus (or Sindus) River
- There is no single founder of Hinduism
- It is the world’s third largest religion with about 950 million followers
- Brahma is the first member of the Hindu Trinity and is “the Creator” because he created everything in the universe
- Vishnu is the second member of the Hindu Trinity and maintains the order and harmony of the universe
- Shiva is the third member of the Hindu Trinity and is tasked with destroying the universe in order to prepare for its renewal at the end of each cycle of time
Beliefs of Hinduism
Brahman is Truth and Reality
- Brahman is believed to be their one true God who is formless, limitless, all inclusive, and eternal
The Vedas are the Ultimate Authority
- Hindu scriptures that contain revelations received by ancient saints and sages. Vedas are believed to be without beginning and without end
- A righteous way of living
- Describes duties people have in life and refer to how the universe works
Universe Undergoes Endless Cycles of Creation
- This includes preservation and dissolution
- Believes that the individual soul is neither created nor destroyed
Writing and Language
Two languages are Hindi and English. Hindi is believed to come from early versions of Sanskrit. Hindi emerged as a corrupted language. By the 7th century A.D. and the 10th century A.D. it became stable
- The first Indian script developed in the Indus Valley around 2600 B.C.
- Later Indian scripts like Brahmi and Kharosthi were developed to write both official and local languages
- Hindi and Hindi-related languages are the current written language used in India
The Caste System (Social)
- India’s Caste system is among the world’s oldest forms of surviving social stratifications
- Began after the Indus Valley civilization disappeared and the Aryans arrived
- A life-long social group into which a Hindu is born
- Four social classes (top to bottom): The Brahmins (priests & scholars); Warriors and nobles; Artisans and Merchants; and on the lowest level, farm workers, laborers, and servants
- Divides Hindus into rigid hierarchical groups based on their karma and dharma
- Caste System grew stricter to a point where people were born into your caste and could not move or marry out of it
- Three Central Beliefs:
- - Reincarnation: The belief is the consideration that individual souls are eternal
- - Law of Karma: The present condition of your soul is a product of your past decisions. It also means that your present thoughts, decisions, and actions determine your future states (“Unsettle state” = “bad karma”).
- - Believed in doing sacrifices: They believed this helped them and their harvests and that they blessed them.
Historical Role of Women
- Two types of scholarly women - The Brahmavadini, or women who never married and cultured the Vedas throughout their lives; and the Sadyodvaha who studied the Vedas till they married.
- Very discriminated, sometimes called “untouchables”
- Women often enjoyed prominent roles in politics. Megasthenes mentioned the Pandya women running the administration. The Satavahana queen, “Nayanika ruled the kingdom on behalf of her minor son. A little after the Gupta period, queens used to rule in Kashmir, Orissa, and Andhra. Women were provincial and village administrators in the Kannada region.
- Denied access to education
- Sold in prostitution and honor killings
The indian family has been a dominant institution in the life of the individual and in the life of the community. For the Hindu family, extended family and kinship ties are the utmost important. In India, families adhere to a patriarchal ideology, follow the patrilineal rule of descent, are patrilocal, have familialism value orientations, and endorse traditional gender role preferences. A joint family includes kinsmen, and generally includes three to four living generations, including uncles, aunts, nieces, nephews, and grandparents living together in the same household.
A seasonal prevailing wind in the region of South and Southeast Asia, blowing from the southwest between May and September and bringing rain (the wet monsoon), or from the northeast between October and April (the dry monsoon). The monsoon ha brought water to farmers and helped shape the land. It gave hope to farmers for crops. This really was the hope every year for crops and it is the same way today. Without the monsoon, farmers have to find a way for irrigation.
- The British colonized India
- The British came around the 1600’s but only to trade. In 1738 the British took over
- India was under heavy control from 1757 to 1947; nearly 200 years
- India was controlled because the British began to use their resources to trade like, cotton, silk, spices, and tea
- India was given independence on August 15, 1947 after the Indian Independence Act was passed
- Indian men were asked to fight with the British in World War 2 and in return they asked for independence
- Gandhi was a pivotal figure in India’s independence movement. Gandhi used peaceful tactics like speeches and nonviolent marches. On of the big movements he did was called the Salt March. The Salt March began in 1930 and was an act of civil disobedience to protest British rule. Thousands of Indians followed Gandhi and nearly 60,000 people including Gandhi were arrested. Because of this act, India was given their independence in 1947
Population - 1.252 Billion
Global Rank - 2
GDP Rank - 7
Government of India is Federal Government. The main leader is Narendra Modi. He is the current prime minister in India. He is known for rising from humble beginnings to become prime minister. He was elected prime minister in 2014 and he joined the RSS (a Hindu nationalist political party) in his early teens
Role of Women/Caste System Today
- The caste system is not much different from ours in the US. Everyone just fits in where they fit in. Yes, there is social stratification but that really feels like it is everywhere
- Women played a significant role in the development of the nation
- Women are now educated
- The main religion in China is Confucianism and Taoism
- Taoism was founded in East Asia and currently has 173 practitioners.
- It is not a real religion it’s an ethical and philosophical system which developed from Confucius thoughts and later was treated as a kind of belief to educate common people.
- Started by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty and became the ideology of the society in the feudal system since then.
- Traditions and principles (Based on the 4 books hand five classics) played an important role in the formation of chinese people’s thinking pattern and teaching methods.
- Has a worldwide influence
- 6,111,056 practitioners
Deities- Yu-huang (The Jade Emperor)- Highest God of Taoism He rules heaven. All Gods follow him because he has the most power. He is the Lord of the living and the dead of life of everything. To sum up this person is that main God of Taoism and is someone you do NOT want to anger.
Yuan-Shih T’ien-Tsun simply just exists and instructs. He has no beginning and no end. He existed when there was nothing and will exist when there is nothing. Self-existing, changeless, Limitless, invisible, contains all virtues, is present in all places and is the source of all truth. This God is important because he is forever and is there to instruct the “Emperor”.
- Ch’i- Differentiates a corpse from a live human being. This is a(n) important practice in Taoism. Chi is important because it influences and gives people peace. It since it has been around it has been a part of Chinese culture and philosophy.
- Death and Afterlife- Life and death are merely two aspects of reality, the unchanging Tao. Death is going from being to non-being or Yang to Yin. They don’t view “Death” as death they see it as leaving the human body. Moving on to another world somewhere else.
- Immortals- The spiritual beings of primary importance in religious Taoism are the Immortals. These were the people that Taoist looked up to. They were these perfect beings that people saw as who they were supposed to become someday. And it was near impossible to become immortal some believed.
- The Tao- The ultimate reality in Taoism is the Tao (Way). The True definition of Tao is that there is no same definition. Everybody has to discover this within their own terms. You have to find the Tao within yourself to truly understand its definition. To find “The Tao” you really just live life. Discover who you really are and everything else will just come naturally. Don’t focus too hard on one thing. Move on and move forward.
Gun Powder- Evidence of the first use of gunpowder comes from the Tang Dynasty. Recipes for gunpowder looked to be written during the Song Dynasty. Its use was described to be used for bombs launched from catapults. Gunpowder was used for the failed invasion on Japan on 1274 and 1281. During the 13th century gunpowder formulas became more potent.
- Gun Powder- Evidence of the first use of gunpowder comes from the Tang Dynasty. Recipes for gunpowder looked to be written during the Song Dynasty. Its use was described to be used for bombs launched from catapults. Gunpowder was used for the failed invasion on Japan on 1274 and 1281. During the 13th century gunpowder formulas became more potent.
- Compass- A true compass was discovered in the Han Dynasty. They found a new element and also discovered that it could magnetize metal. This led to them discovering that Earth had a magnetic pull to it that attracted this element in one direction. This led to them making directions out of this system.
- Fireworks- Fireworks were first invented in the Tang Dynasty and were first used for shows but then were used as weapons to scare their enemies.
Spoken and Written Language-
- Mandarin and Cantonese are the spoken languages in China. Mandarin is the main spoken language in China. Hànzì is the written language in China. Hànzì wasn’t the official writing in China until the 1950’s after the state council of the People’s Republic of China said that they wanted it to be there’s. In 1952, the Language Reform Research Committee of China first drafted the list of frequently used simplification of Chinese characters, affirming to the principle of "only describing and stating the concept of the ancient people, not creating.”
- Writing was done on oracle bones around 1500 BCE
- Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese was and is their main spoken languages
- Mandarin and Cantonese are the current written languages
Yellow and Yangtze River-
- The Basin of this river was the birthplace of early Chinese civilizations. It was the start of it all. A problem it has had and still has is the River floods over sometimes and this causes fields to become flooded and in the long run is bad for the crops. This river is also known as China’s sorrow or Scourge of the Sons of Han.
- Essential to the development of China
- Known as the mother river of the chinese Nation
- A place where they focus their spiritual energies on
- Helped with harvest, watered almost everything
Role of women/How Important Family Was-
- Worked mainly in the home
- Worked in food industry like farming or fishing
- Worked as prostitutes
- Had arranged marriages
- More respected if they if they had sons
- Participated in foot binding
- Family wasn’t all that important
- Daughters were not celebrated and sometimes did not receive names
- Men were considered the most important gender
- Women were considered servants
- Britain colonized China. In 1842 China was colonized by the British. This was because the treaty of Nanjing was signed. China didn’t gain independence until October 1, 1949. The main reason Britain colonized China was for land. They wanted everything. They wanted do also do everything first. They went on a spree to take what they thought was theirs. China gained its independence because the People’s Republic of China was developed for the first time ever. China gained independence not really through individuals. It was a strong group effort of really the whole country.
- Population - 1.375 Billion
- GDP World Rank - Number 2 19.24 Trillion USD
One Child Policy
- The one-child policy was a policy implemented by the Chinese government as a method of controlling the population. The one-child policy was introduced in 1979 in response to an explosive population growth, and mandated that couples from China's Han majority could only have one child.
- Xi Jinping is China’s current leader. Chinese politician who currently serves as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, the President of the People's Republic of China, and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Role of Women in China Today-
- Women have no accepted role
- Have more opportunities
- Can be educated
- China will be the first major economy to go gray before it gets rich, placing huge strains on working-age people who will have to effectively pay for pensions and healthcare for a disproportionate number of non-working elderly citizens. For a nominally socialist country, the weave of China's social safety net is woefully loose, and badly frayed in parts most notably the healthcare system. This is often cited as a major cause of the high savings rate something that chokes off consumption and contributes to the imbalance in China's economy.