Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China.
Many inhabitants are bilingual or trilingual.
The official languages are Persian and Pashto
The Persian spoken by the ethnic groups: Tajiks, Hazaras, and Aymaks is similar to the Persian of Iran.
Persian is the preferred means of expression among educated and urban people.
Islam is the most practiced religion by the majority of Afghans
Over 99% of Afghans are Muslims.
80–89% of the population practice Sunni Islam
10–19% practice Shi'a Islam
1% are followers of other religions
There are thousands of Sikhs and Hindus living in the country
In the 1990s, the Taliban government banned instrumental music and much public music-making and artistic expression.
Many musicians and singers continued to play in other countries.
Distribution of Afghan music can be heard and found in Pakistani cities such as Peshawar, Karachi and Islamabad .
Music tradition was influenced by Arabs, Persians, Indians, Mongolians, and Chinese .
Family and family life is a main aspect of the Afghan culture.
Men and women's roles are distinct and very traditional
Women are responsible for household duties
Men will be the main source of income in the family
Families arrange marriages for their children based on tribe, status, network, and wealth.
Families traditionally live together in the same residence. This is known as a kala.
Before 1978, ethnic relations were competitive and tense.
The pro-Soviet government attempted to promote the rights, culture, and languages of non-Pashtun groups. In the 1990s, political claims evolved from an Islamic to an ethnic discourse.
Islam-inspired resistance to the Soviets failed to provide a common ground for building peace and uniting people.
Since 1992, the civil war has been marked by ethnic claims that have led to polarization between Pashtuns and the other ethnic groups
The Pashtun are Sunni Muslims who Pashtu. They constitute around 42% of the population
Tajiks comprise 27% of the population. They are Iranian in origin and speak a form of Persian found in Eastern Iran. Most are Sunni Muslim. Most reside in Kabul and Herat provinces,although some reside in the mountains north of Hindu Kush, and the Iranian border.
Hazaris make up about 9% of the population. They are descendants of the Mongols, and speak a dialect of Persian that contains many Turkish words. They are also Shiite Muslims which led to much of their persecution under Taliban rule. Most live in the Hazarajat region.
Uzbeks live in the northern parts of the country and also comprise only 9% of the population. They are Sunni Muslims and speak a dialect of Turkish.
The Turkomen are a small minority making only 3% of the population.